Chapter 1 Cybersecurity, a world of expert criminals (1. Cybersecurity -…
Chapter 1 Cybersecurity, a world of expert criminals
1. Cybersecurity - A World of Experts and Criminals
Originally, the term
individuals with advanced programming skills
Hackers used these programming skills to
test the limits and capabilities of
These early hackers were also involved in the development of early
wizards and wizardry
hacking culture evolved
, it incorporated the
of these games into the culture itself.
world began to
project the image of powerful wizards
upon this misunderstood hacking culture
Books such as Where Wizards Stay up Late: The Origins of The Internet
published in 1996 added to the mystique of the hacking culture
One of the most infamous hacker groups goes by the name
Legion of Doom.
was a Chinese philosopher and warrior in the sixth century BC. Sun Tzu wrote the book titled,
The Art of War
, which is a classic work about the strategies available to defeat the enemy.
His book has given guidance to tacticians throughout the ages. One of Sun Tzu’s guiding principles was to
know your opponent
HACKER: A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in particular. The term is often misused in a pejorative context, where "cracker" would be the correct term. (RFC 1392 Internet Users' Glossary).
The Cybersecurity World
Overview of the Cybersecurity Domains
can be in the form of numbers, pictures, video, audio, or any type of data that can be digitized.
are able to
collect and utilize massive amounts of data
, they begin to amass
power and influence
These groups could become so powerful that they operate as though they are separate powers, creating separate cybersecurity domains.
Companies such as Google, Facebook, and LinkedIn, could be considered to be
in our cyber world
people who work at these digital companies could be considered
Examples of Cybersecurity Domains
Google has arguably created the world’s
largest data collection infrastructure
Facebook experts built a massive data domain to enable people to connect in ways that were unimaginable in the past.
You are volunteering a great deal of personal data
Their members would share information in the pursuit of building a professional network.
These domains are
of the ability to
collect user data contributed by the users themselves.
Experts create great value for organizations interested in using this data to better understand and communicate with their customers and employees.
The Growth of the Cyber Domains
Cyber domains continue to grow as science and technology evolve
Enabling the experts and their employers to collect many other forms of data
Cyber experts now have the technology to track worldwide weather trends, monitor the oceans, as well as the movement and behavior of people, animals and objects in real time.
The data generated has the potential to enable cyber criminals to gain access to very intimate aspects of daily life.
Cybersecurity Criminals versus Cybersecurity Specialists
Who Are the Cyber Criminals?
Attackers are individuals or groups who attempt to
exploit vulnerabilities for personal or financial gain.
are interested in everything from credit cards to product designs, and
anything with value.
, have little or
using existing tools or instructions
found on the Internet to launch attacks.
Some are just curious, while others try to demonstrate their skills and cause harm
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White hat attackers
break into networks or computer systems to discover weaknesses in order to improve the security of these systems.
owners of the system give permission
to perform the break-in, and they receive the results of the test.
Black hat attackers (cyber criminals)
take advantage of any vulnerability for illegal personal, financial or political gain.
Gray hat attackers
may find a vulnerability and report it to the owners of the system if that action coincides with their agenda. Some gray hat hackers publish the facts about the vulnerability on the Internet, so that other attackers can exploit it.
Organizations of cyber criminals, hacktivists, terrorists, and state-sponsored hackers
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Cyber Criminal Motives
Hacking started in the ‘60s with phone freaking (or phreaking) which refers to using various audio frequencies to manipulate phone systems
In the mid-‘80s, criminals used computer dial-up modems to connect computers to networks and used password-cracking programs to gain access to data.
The greatest motivation for most cyber criminals is financial. Cybercrime has become more lucrative than the illegal drug trade.
Thwarting Cyber Criminals