Imperatives + Directives
‘I think we need to sort this out’ means – pragmatically – ‘Sort it!’
The use of standard or non standard grammar as each can be powerful in different circumstances.
Sentence construction- short sentences can be very powerful
Modals: ‘Chocolate is bad for your health…’ or ‘Chocolate might be bad for your health…’; ‘Would you mind keeping quiet?’ or ‘Shut up!’.
Interrogatives: can be an exhibition of power and very persuasive e.g. rhetorical questions
Pronouns- ‘I’, ‘you’,& we each have persuasive effects.
Rule of Three
Use of different sentence types
Figurative and emotive language are persuasive
Overt + Covert Prestige
Formal/Informal, Collequial/Slang, Jargon, Dialect
Semantic fields can be influential
Words used frequently
Naming e.g. titles
Types of Power
Instrumental Power – Power used to maintain and enforce authority.
Influential Power – Power used to influence or persuade others.
Political Power – Power held by those with the backing of the law.
Personal Power – Power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisations.
Social Group Power – Power held as a result of being a member of a dominant social group.
Sound to add persuasion and impact
Harsh or Soft constanonts
Accents: Recieved Pronpunciation, covertly prestigious local accents or stigmatized accents
Politeness: Goffman, Brown + Levinson, Lakoff
Face saving + Face threatening acts
shows that co-operation is the norm in conversations but that ‘conversational maxims’ can be flouted or otherwise not followed to suggest influence and power.
shows that many interactions are ‘unequal encounters’; that language choice is created and constrained by certain social ‘power’ situations or ‘power type’ discourse of kinds accepted as ‘normal’ for that kind of encounter, e.g. a manager/worker or doctor/patient conversation (or, in a text, the use of stereotypes or other ideological ideas).
Synthetic personalisation is the process of addressing mass audiences as though they were individuals through inclusive language usage.
Dominant Participant: initiate the conversation, set the agenda, control the topics, reinforce the required behaviour through positive feedback, interruptions, overlapping
Submissive Participant: respond rather than initiate, say very much less, follow the set agenda, respectful, form of address, avoid familiarity, avoid assertiveness, use fillers and vague language