o Excess consumption of alcohol
o Vitamin D deficiency
o Tobacco smoking: Tobacco smoking inhibits the activity of osteoblasts.
o Malnutrition: low dietary calcium and/or phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, boron, iron, fluoride, copper, vitamins A, K, E and C.
o Under weight/inactive.
o Heavy metals: Higher cadmium exposure results in osteomalacia.
• Soft drinks.
• Long-term glucocorticoid therapy
• Proton pump inhibitors (such as lansoprazole, esomeprazole, or omeprazole) that decrease stomach acid, are a risk for bone fractures if taken for two or more years, due to decreased absorption of calcium in the stomach