FUN 13: Vaccination + Immunotherapy (ii) (How do tumours avoid immune…
FUN 13: Vaccination + Immunotherapy (ii)
phases of tumour immunology...
dendritic cells present tumour antigens to T cells, causing proliferation + migration
2) tumour cell escape + immunoediting
presence of tumour cells release "danger signals"
cytokines, heat shock proteins, uric acid
CD8 cells kill tumour cells with granzymes via perforin (apoptosis)
NK cells kill tumour cells via ADCC
How do tumours avoid immune recognition?
no peptide, MHC, ligand, adhesion/costim molecules
tumour = self
tumour loses antigen after antibody interaction
due to mutated proteins + oncogenes
tumour-induced immune suppression
TGF beta + T regs
tumour-induced privileged site
secreting factors to form a physical barrier
overcome failed response
recruitment (esp ADCC)
tumour antigen must be on cell surface
antibodies with conjugates
e.g. toxins, radioisotopes
anti HER2 (breast cancer)
stops tumour growth
enhances APCs + T cells
successful for melanomas
SE = global immune activation
work if antigen is...
has role in survival/differentiation/metastasis
BCG has adjuvant for melanoma + bladder carcinoma
dendritic cell vaccine for melanoma