What is it? Diagnostic assessments are sets of written questions (multiple choice or short answer) that assess a learner’s current knowledge base or current views on a topic/issue to be studied in the course. The goal is to get a snapshot of where students currently stand - intellectually, emotionally or ideologically - allowing the instructor to make sound instructional choices as to how to teach the new course content and what teaching approach to use.They are often used pre- and post-instruction, where students are given identical pre- and post-tests before and after the course. This method allows instructors and students to chart their learning progress by comparing pre- and post-tests results. Some disciplines, such as physics, have developed a set of diagnostic tests such as Force Concept Inventory opens in new window that can be used by instructors. http://www.queensu.ca/teachingandlearning/modules/assessments/10_s2_02_diagnostic_assessment.html
Advantages -Gives the teacher the ability to see students stance on ideas
- Allows the teacher the ability to differentiate instruction based on students understanding
- Learners have the ability to renew and analyze their existing knowledge before embarking on a training program
- Quality of assessment is varied teacher to teacher
-Early assessment may have a negative effect on students emotions
Example of a Diagnostic Assessment for Grade 6 and 7 Social Studies
Students get open questions about what they know of certain continents before class.
1) How many countries in S. America can you name __
2) How many important dates in S. American history do you know__
3) How many presidents famous figures can you name in S.American history_
4) What is it you like/dislike about S.America ___
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS (an assessment for learning) http://edglossary.org/formative-assessment/
What is it?The general goal of formative assessment is to collect detailed information that can be used to improve instruction and student learning while it’s happening. What makes an assessment “formative” is not the design of a test, technique, or self-evaluation, per se, but the way it is used—i.e., to inform in-process teaching and learning modifications.http://edglossary.org/formative-assessment/
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS (an assessment of learning) http://edglossary.org/summative-assessment/
What is it? Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. Generally speaking, summative assessments are defined by three major criteria:1) A test to see if students have learned what they are supposed to.
2) Tests at the end of an instructional period (eg unit, program or year)
3) Graded assessments that make up an academic record. http://edglossary.org/summative-assessment/
Disadvantages-Debate about if the tests are designed properly
- Immediate recordable data that can track a students progress
-Results can inform the design of future lessons, courses, modules etc.
-Do summative assessments take all types of learning into account?
- Do such tests stress out students and create a negative impact on social hierarchies?
HIGH STAKES ASSESSMENT (an assessment of learning) http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/
What is it? A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers. In general, “high stakes” means that test scores are used to determine punishments (such as sanctions, penalties, funding reductions, negative publicity), accolades (awards, public celebration, positive publicity), advancement (grade promotion or graduation for students), or compensation (salary increases or bonuses for administrators and teachers).http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/
Advantages-Holds teachers accountable for performance of students.
-Establishes high expectations for both educators and students
-Provides confidence in parents and educators that students are performing at a high level. Disadvantages -Forces educators to teach to the test.
-Contributes to higher rates of cheating as students are afraid to fail.
-Strong pressure on schools to improve test results.
-Does not fit the full spectrum of education (IE disabled students etc http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/
Example of High Stakes Assessment for Grade 6 and 7 Social Studies
Actually we don't have any high stakes assessments in Middle School Grade 6 and 7.
But if we did....
-Students would pass or fail the year based on their test results. Punishment could be to hold back the students another year.
-Students would receive a pass or fail mark and have to make up their scores during the summer time.
PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT (an assessment for and of learning) http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/portfolio.html
What is it? A student portfolio is a systematic collection of student work and related material that depicts a student's activities, accomplishments, and achievements in one or more school subjects. The collection should include evidence of student reflection and self-evaluation, guidelines for selecting the portfolio contents, and criteria for judging the quality of the work. The goal is to help students assemble portfolios that illustrate their talents, represent their writing capabilities, and tell their stories of school achievement... (Venn, 2000, pp. 530-531)http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/portfolio.html
Advantages -Promoting students self evaluation.
-Providing a process for structured learning in stages.
-Gives a different dimension by including multi dimensional ways of demonstrating learning Disadvantages-Gathering of portfolios is timely and bulky and requires extra
-Subjective evaluation method.
-Individual portfolio conferences costs a lot of time.http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/portfolio.html
Example of a Portfolio Assessment for Grade 6 and 7 Social Studies
Students hand in a portfolio that includes some of the following
-A timeline of important dates
-A researched map of an important area
-Research on one or more historical character
-A natural disaster / weather report of a country
-A political van diagram explaining the state of politics in a country.
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS (an assessment of and for learning) http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm
What is it? A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller"...Engaging and worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use knowledge to fashion performances effectively and creatively. The tasks are either replicas of or analogous to the kinds of problems faced by adult citizens and consumers or professionals in the field." -- Grant Wiggins -- (Wiggins, 1993, p. 229)."Performance assessments call upon the examinee to demonstrate specific skills and competencies, that is, to apply the skills and knowledge they have mastered." -- Richard J. Stiggins -- (Stiggins, 1987, p. 34).EG- An assessment that places students in a real world environment were there skills may be tested. http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm
SELF ASSESSMENT (an assessment for and of learning) https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/self-assessment
What is it? Student self-assessment occurs when learners assess their own performance. With practice, they learn to:objectively reflect on and critically evaluate their own progress and skill development
identify gaps in their understanding and capabilities
discern how to improve their performance
learn independently and think critically.https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/self-assessment
Advantages-Helps students to understand the value of self assessment. A skill which all adults need to improve their own lives.
-Students take control over their own pace and effort in learning.
-Increasing self awareness through reflective practice.Disadvantages-Lower students over estimate their achievements
-Students think the teacher is just being lazy as its a teachers job to assess.
-None consistent grading. https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/self-assessment
Example of a Self Assessment for Grade 6 and 7 Social Studies Students are asked to create a project based on a historical character. They value their work on areas such as effort, time spent, quality of work, quality of deliverance etc. https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/self-assessment
PEER ASSESSMENT (an assessment for and of learning)https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/peer-assessment
What is it? Peer assessment is the assessment of students' work by other students of equal status. Students often undertake peer assessment in conjunction with formal self-assessment. They reflect on their own efforts, and extend and enrich this reflection by exchanging feedback on their own and their peers' work.EG- Much like self assessment but involving a classmate. https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/peer-assessment
Advantages-Students work together to discuss work's pros and cons
-Students hear and respond better to criticism from peers
-Feels like its fair and criticism is not the teacher picking on them. Disadvantages-Students may not seriously engage in it.
-Many students think its the teachers job to assess.
-Friends contribute praise and no criticism. https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/peer-assessment
Example of a Portfolio Assessment for Grade 6 and 7 Social Studies Students peer assess each others reports on historical fiigures. They provide constant and final feedback on each others work contributing to a final report and their own overall grade. https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/peer-assessment