EU1 The Role of the Educator and Teaching with Integrity (1.3 Professional…
EU1 The Role of the Educator and Teaching with Integrity
1.1 The concept of education
The ethical basis of education
Contents of education
Knowledge, skills and attitudes must be beneficial (useful), fulfilling and complete when transfer to students.
Methods of education
Allow students' participation and understanding
Snook (1972): A person indoctrination "P" with the aim students believe "P" more than evidence.
Propaganda, brainwashing, censorship, drill, memorization, punishment, threats, force.
The methods disapproved/objectionable as
Process is biased, students not given right to see clearly all aspects of the issue being taught.
Understanding and knowledge development is limited.
Capabilities lost enthusiasm.
Not rationally critical
Just accept views of teachers
* These teachers not deserve to call educators, they not fair to students, does not instill understanding/feeling of respecting the rights of others.
Moral role of the educator
Problem-setter and problem-solver
teachers often have to grapple with ethical dilemmas related to certain issues or conflicting matters.
-The lives of teachers in school are not without dilemmas related to ethical issues or conflict.
-The ethical dilemmas encountered by teachers are many, and Greenfield (1991) has identified several types of ethical dilemmas.
Four of these types of dilemmas will be listed below.
1, due to their respective fundamental ethical principle or system, teachers may find that their personal and professional values seem to diverge in finding solutions to certain situations. ==> They may face some conflict in deciding which value to choose.
example - Regarding dress code for teachers and students.
2, there are standards of good practice within the teaching profession. More often than not, teachers face dilemmas in deciding which or what standard to choose when these so-called standards of good practice are competing with each other.
Streaming of students.
3 type is the dilemma of choice associated with conflicts between system-level organisational policies or rules and considerations at the institution or classroom- level. ==> This is so, if teachers in the school think and feel that certain directives from the higher authorities are unacceptable.
the school policy that has a roster of teachers haveing to greet students at the gate - when the teacher may not feel that it is part of that job
Welcoming students at the school gate.
4, some teachers have idiosyncratic beliefs or concerns regarding the consequences of their actions and decisions. They do not want to be seen by their colleagues as trying to ‘rock the boat’ or as wanting favours from the authority. Hence, they are unsure of what they should do.
Taking efforts to be creative and innovative in the teaching-
or to be accused of being a sychopant
This in turn demands the teachers to be competent in problem-setting and problem-solving which means ===> that
they must have the capacity to reflect and develop informed and responsible judgements, and choose the best among defensible actions.
education must prepare students for citizenship
This means that students must be assisted in developing their individual freedom and at the same time involving them collectively in defining the common good.
towards this goal
teachers must show examples that will encourage particularly young students to understand others and also helping these students to understand their own roles and responsibilities as citizens.
Educators are, therefore, responsible for the quality of learning by demonstrating exemplary teaching and by giving priority to students’ needs and best interests.
Students do conceive and perceive the behaviours of teachers, and how they receive it will perhaps determine whether or not they will be ‘good individuals’ and ‘good citizens’.
Especially for those students who are still immature, they need guidance related to when, and especially what and how to learn.
It must be reiterated here that from the ethical point of view, there is also the right and wrong way in the learning process.
Briefly, they are
devoted to standards of best practice, and they build, sustain and promote conditions of competence.
Besides that, they
reflect on the consequences of the policies and rules of their respective schools
and other educational institutions, organisations and agencies
(parents, colleagues, other clients and beneficiaries, and especially on their students).
When teachers are engaged in dialogue, as a two-way activity, they
should patiently listen to opinions as well as arguments and to deliberate on these before making any responses; and definitely their decisions should be sound, rational and fair.
They also deliberately
make informed decisions and take actions in a distinctly moral manner, that is, they consider the moral consequences of their classroom practices on their students.
teachers are expected not only to be reflective, but also
. --- In a multicultural society having various value-perspectives (or diversity in the ethical point of view) regarding certain situations, ===>
1.3 Professional conduct of the educator
Code of conduct and moral role of the teacher
sometimes 24 statements not helpful in handling teacher dilemmas -- code of conduct is not sufficiently detailed --
SO teacher has to be a problem solver
a teacher in carrying out his responsibilities towards a certain client (for example, a student) will face a dilemma if what he is going to do is against his responsibilities towards another client (the student’s parents).
Inevitably, this teacher has to set and solve the problem.
Indeed, quite often teachers will face situations which pose issues and conflicts, and in resolving these dilemmas they may find that the code of conduct is brief and general in nature; hence it cannot be utilised as standards that can function for cases that are not clear cut or grey in nature.
Do you, as a teacher, feel stressed if you are forced to choose between the obligations to take care of your students’ interests and the pressure to ensure loyalty towards your colleagues if these two collide?
Under what conditions should you not inform something (related to confidentiality, sensitive issues, or right to privacy) regarding your students to others (parents or other persons of authority)? What would you do when you see your colleagues doing something unprofessional? On whose side would you be if there is a conflict between MoE or MoHE and the parents or your colleagues? Are you willing to give prime consideration to students above all else?
Teaching with integrity
teaching with integrity can be explained by listing actions and behaviours in teaching that are prohibited and those that can be promoted.
more meaningful to treat teaching with integrity as teachers’ commitment, even in the face of adversity, to certain core values, traits or qualities.
These fundamental values are to enable teachers to translate professional ideals into ethically commendable actions in the teaching-learning process.
comparing 7 noble values and 6 values of MoHE ==> Some of the values listed above apparently overlap and can be subsumed under values that are more basic or fundamental;
Honesty is the foundation of teaching or rather educative teaching.
Otherwise, teachers who are dishonest can be condemned, among other things, as indoctrinating their students. It is also the prerequisite for the realisation of other important values in teaching.
When teachers are being honest consistently, there will be mutual trust between teachers and students as well as among teachers and among students. There will then be collaboration and sharing of ideas, and ultimately students’ academic work will improve.
To ensure that there will be no excuses for misconduct, teachers need to be fair in the classroom interaction. Indeed, fairness must be seen and practised, for example, in evaluation of students’ behaviours, achievement, and such like.
Teachers must also realise the engaging and participatory nature of the teaching- learning process. Hence, teachers must respect a wide range of opinions and ideas of their students, besides citing sources or acknowledging the work of other educators.
Responsibility and accountability
Finally, teachers need to uphold personal accountability as well as be responsible, and being responsible means taking action against wrongdoing despite peer pressure, fear, loyalty or compassion.
guidelines for the professional conduct of teachers in Malaysia
Work Ethics’ (Etika Kerja)
3 objectives related to work ethics
to instil positive attitude in carrying out tasks to increase the quality of work;
to augment self-discipline to produce excellent service towards clients and organisation;and
to give continuous positive contribution to the nation.
5 principles related to work ethics
mover towards the good;
practise what is preached; and
disciplined and ethical.
7 main noble values as being the focus of its ethics.
Tatasusila Profesion Perguruan Malaysia’.- Code of Professional conduct
4 statements of teacher responsibility == x6 =24
A. (teacher) Responsibilities towards parents:
Respect the main responsibilities of parents towards their children.
Take note that all information given by parents regarding the conditions of their homes and their children is something confidential and will not disclose them to anybody except to those who have the right to know.
Give information to parents for the interests of their children and use carefully and wisely information received from parents.
Take effort to establish good relationship and close cooperation between educational institution and home.
Avoid using or being influenced by the social and economic status of students’ parents.
Avoid saying things or doing something that can adversely affect students’ beliefs towards their parents or guardians.
B. Responsibilities towards students:
Keep secret professional or confidential information regarding students except to those who have the right to know.
7.. Give priority to students’ welfare and security more than anything else.
Guide or teach a student in one’s classroom or subject without being paid for it.
Show how one should dress, speak and behave that can give a good example to students.
Improve professional competency through research conducted, visits and attending professional courses, conferences, meetings and such like so that one’s teaching will be of the highest quality.
Fair to every student regardless of the physical, mental, emotional, political, economic, social, race or religious factor.
C. Responsibilities towards society and nation:
Avoid disseminating teachings that can damage the interests of students, society and the nation, or that is in contradiction to the Rukunegara
Inculcate in students attitudes and values that can assist and guide them to become loyal, responsible and useful citizens, respecting the elders and the different cultures, races and religions.
Respect the local society in the area where one is working and fulfil all responsibilities as a citizen and always willing to participate in any activities of the society.
Encourage cooperation and understanding between teachers and parents, educational institutions and society
Give active contribution to enhance the moral life, culture and the intellectuality of society.
Hold on to appropriate behaviours that are accepted by society and live one’s daily life properly.
D. Responsibilities towards colleagues and the teaching profession:
Avoid making statements and remarks that can discredit the good name of a teacher in front of students or parents, or doing something that can reduce the dignity of a teacher.
Do not participate in activities that can adversely affect one’s competency as a teacher.
Take whole effort to fulfil one’s responsibilities diligently and maintains it in line with professional and social development.
Always ready to assist colleagues and especially those who are new in the teaching profession.
Always in control of oneself to ensure that the good image of the teaching profession is not disgraced.
Will become a member of an association for teachers.
ALSO binds HE teachers
Additional guidelines for those who teach in colleges and universities,
Academic Integrity Guidelines of the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE).
ref academic integrity
Core values of academic integrity: (GENERAL)
CF. The Center for Academic Integrity,
Malaysian HE acaemic integrity covers the following areas
teaching and learning,
FOCUS on academic integrity in this area
guidelines require the college and university teachers to:
Equip themselves with and deliver up-to-date knowledge.
Use appropriate methods and teaching materials.
Provide a balanced (not biased) perspective in delivering knowledge.
Ensure that the level of knowledge delivered is suitable to the level of learning of students.
Be academically honest by acknowledging the source of knowledge.
Give to all students’ reasonable time, teaching materials and attention.
Establish relationship with students that is based on mutual respect.
Fulfil students’ rights.
Ensure that the assessment of students is clear and according to what is stipulated in the course.
Practise assessment of students that is transparent and fair.
Use various methods to assess the students.
research and commercialisation,
community services, and
the work ethics and code of conduct of MoE and MoHE do emphasise the importance of ethics in education and the moral role of the educator.
teachers teach with integrity by translating certain fundamental values and ideals into action.
This is essential for the teachers to achieve their mission as educators, and for the sake of quality learning among students.
It should also be stressed that teaching with integrity and doing it well, besides setting a good example to students, can have positive effects on student behaviour