The Design of Everyday Things (Chapter 2 (Execution and Evaluation …
The Design of Everyday Things
Execution and Evaluation
Execution refers to how something works or what a person can do with the design.
Evaluation refers to what happened after the execution and leads to questioning whether it did what it should or not.
Seven stages of action: Goal, Plan, Specify, Perform, Perceive, Interpret, Compare
Not every stage needs to be done, but most actions need more than one (Norman, 2011, pp. 42).
Processing: Visceral, Behavioral, and Reflective
Visceral is the most basic, refers to the ability to make (quick) judgments depending on the environment.
Behavioral refers to those skills that are learned and utilized depending on a person's situation.
Reflective is about "conscious cognition." This is the deepest level, as it focuses on the ability to develop deep understanding, referring to "reasoning and conscious decision-making" (Norman, 2011, pp. 53).
When designing, thought must take place at all processing levels; each level offers different perspective and must work together.
Learned helplessness comes about in the form of blaming oneself for repeated failures...even if it isn't the fault of the user.
Don't blame users or designs...instead, learn from the feedback to make products more user-friendly.
Good design - discoverability and understanding. This refers to the ability to actually figure out how to use an item, as well as the ability to truly know why certain things must be done.
All items are deemed "good" if discoverability and understanding are clear. items can be "complex" as long as these are able to be figured out.
Items are slowly getting away from understanding; they are becoming far too complex.
"All artificial things are designed" (Norman, 2013, pp. 4).
Can range from anything, not just technology.
Issues arise from human use of designs for a variety of reasons, errors being common. Accidentally doing the wrong act or misunderstanding directions can be a leading culprit.
SIGNIFIERS can help humans better use designs
Helps communicate to the user how they should be using the design in question
Technology is designed to make life easier for the user; however, technology is becoming so complex that it causes more stress than relieves it.
Human Centered Design
Focus is on making sure the humans who will be utilizing the design are able to appropriately
Important to determine who will be using what and what is necessary to make sure those people can
FEEDBACK - humans want instance gratification or immediate responses
Humans lose focus if the information they provide isn't met with something immediately
Too much feedback isn't good, just as too little isn't as well. Both can prove to be annoying and defeat the purpose of the design.
The goal: "Produce a great product, one that is successful, and that customers love" (Norman, 2011, pp.36).
Norman, D. A. (2013). The design of everyday things. New York: Basic Books, a member of the Perseus Books Group.
Gretchen Smither - IDT 860