IDEA Disabilities (Deaf-Blindness (Help From Technology (Modern technology…
Help From Technology
Modern technology has provided opportunities for students who are deafblind to access the general curriculum. Assistive technology devices that were created for individuals with visual impairments (especially those with braille output) can be utilized by students who are deafblind.
What is Deaf-Blindness?
Means concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
In order for individuals who are deafblind to communicate using the telephone, they may use a telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD) that includes braille output. A TDD is a small keyboard with a display and modem. To use the TDD the individual must relay information to an operator. Text messaging has recently become a very useful avenue for individuals with hearing impairments to relay messages without using the TDD
Educators who work with individuals who are deaf-blind have a unique challenge to ensure that the person has access to the world beyond the limitations of their reach. The most important challenge for teachers (as well as parents and caregivers) is to meaningfully communicate.
What is Developmental Delay?
the condition of a child being less developed mentally or physically than is normal for its age.
Developmental Disabilities vs Developmental Delays
Developmental disabilities are issues that kids don’t outgrow or catch up from, though they can make progress. They aren’t the same as learning disabilities, but they can make learning more difficult. Some conditions that can cause developmental disabilities include Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, autism, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and brain injuries.
Developmental delays may be caused by short-lived issues, such as a speech delay being caused by hearing loss from ear infections or a physical delay being caused by a long hospitalization. Delays may also be early signs of learning and attention issues. While it’s not always clear what is causing the delay, early intervention can often help kids catch up. Some kids still have delays in skills when they reach school age. In that case, they may be eligible to receive special education services.
If a parent or physician suspects a 3 or 4 year old may have developmental delays, a referral should be made to the Committee on Preschool Special Education (CPSE). The CPSE will conduct an evaluation which will check the child's cognitive, motor, social, physical, and speech levels. Once the evaluation has been completed the CPSE will review and discuss the evaluation. If there are significant lags in emotional, mental or physical growth, a recommendation will be made to identify the child as a "Preschooler with a Disability". The committee would then devise an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) to address the delays.
Social and Emotional Development
Other Health impairment
Communication with school nurse
IEP= Individualize Educations Program to determine specific needs of the student
What does this pertain to?
A Heart Condition
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
This term covers a range of conditions that can impair a students learning ability. This impairment could be due to a chronic or acute health problem.
What is Emotional Disturbance?
A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
The U.S. Department of Education reports 5,971,495 students receiving special education services in the 2003-2004 school year. Of that number, roughly 7.7%, or 461,055 students, received special education services based on a classification of emotional disturbance. Within this group of 461,055 students, there was a definite disproportionally between gender, race and socioeconomic background. African-American students were far more likely to be diagnosed as emotionally disturbed than white students, reflecting possible race bias in this category. Research has pointed to a direct correlation between low-income status and emotional disorders, but the exact reasons for this correlation are unknown.
How does it affect learning?
It is very important to not make assumptions about any family of a child with an emotional disorder. Many emotional disorders have an organic cause, and the parents of the child may well be loving and supportive in every way. However, some of these students have indeed been abused in some fashion in their young lives, and this too can be a cause of emotional or behavioral issues. Trust can be a very large issue for these children. Forming a relationship with these students that is built on empathy, trust, and mutual respect can often be the solution to many problem behaviors, and can have a lasting impact of the emotional development of the child.
Students with emotional disorders can be found at every level of cognitive functioning, but the majority of these students tend to have low average intelligence. Most achieve below grade level in academic achievement, with the greatest deficits in both math and spelling. Many have a coexisting learning disability of some type. Students that exhibit externalizing behaviors are at the greatest risk for continued deficits in academic functioning. Students with emotional disorders are less likely to attend post-secondary school than students in many other disability categories. An effective educational program for students with emotional disorders will provide emotional and behavioral supports that foster the replacement of problem behaviors with more appropriate behaviors. Positive behavior support systems are one especially effective strategy to achieve this goal, as are the implementation of wraparound services.
What is Autism?
Quiet Corner/Peace Table
Autism is a development disorder that refers to a range of conditionals and include many challenges.
Types of challenges:
Speech and Language Impairment
Definition: "a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, which adversely affects a child's learning"
Types of impairments
This is a neurological disorder that effects the articulatory muscles making it difficult for them to articulate words.
These students will need to work closely with a speech pathologist. They may have trouble fitting in in class because of their inability to express themselves. Modify content and activities for such students so that they do not need to rely on verbal expression.
This is a medical condition that involves injury to the vocal apparatus. It will need to be addressed by both a doctor and pathologist.
Stuttering ot Stammering
This disorder can be a genetic developmental disorder or one caused by brain trauma. The disorder includes delayed responses and repetition of sounds and words when speaking. These students may be delayed in their cognitive ability which is causing them difficulty when pressured to use big words or complex sentences that they are not ready for cognitively.
These students will need to work closely with a speech pathologist and it is essential that they find help as a younger age as it can be increasingly difficult to fix as they get older. These students also will have stress and anxiety from not be able take their turns in communicating and will often face ridicule from other students.
May affect turn-taking difficulties in play with peers and in conversation; difficulties initiating interactions appropriately; difficulties joining a group of peers; difficulty making/keeping friends; reduced ability to understand or use appropriate body language; difficulty initiating and maintaining conversations or terminating them appropriately; difficulty elaborating in conversation without being tangential or off-topic; difficulty asking and answering questions relevant to the situation; and difficulty following conversations and contributing polite, relevant statements.
This student will need extra help in pragmatic functions of language that most students will pick up naturally.
This is simply an ear infection. Ear infections when experiences frequently in early development can negatively impact language development.
These students should be referred to a doctor to get medicinal treatment.
This disorder, also called Autism, has already been covered under the Autism node including it's effects on language.
Expressive Language Disorders
Students with this disorder are able to understand language better than they can express it. Children with expressive language delays often do not talk much or often, although they generally understand language addressed to them. For example, a 2 year old may be able to follow 2-step commands, but he/she cannot name body parts. A 4 year old may understand stories read to him/her, but he/she may not be able to describe the story even in a simple narrative. Imaginative play and social uses of language (i.e. manners, conversation) may also be impaired by expressive language limitations, causing difficulty in playing with peers. These are children who may have a lot to say, but are unable to retrieve the words they need. Some children may have no problem in simple expression, but have difficulties retrieving and organizing words and sentences when expressing more complicated thoughts and ideas. This may occur when they are trying to describe, define, or explain information or retell an event or activity.
Give these students other means to express their ideas other than just verbal and written communication.
This is slurred speech resulting from neurological phenomena.
These students will need to work with a specialist and in severe cases may need to use sign language.
Disorders of Written Expression
These students may do well with other forms of language but struggle developing writing skills.
Consider letting these students use other means besides writing in assessments and tasks meanwhile giving them activities to build and exercise their writing skills.
This includes the mispronouncing of certain sounds and words as well as lisps that surface during the development of the child.
NORMAL SPEECH SOUND DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN
p, m, h, n, w, b, k, g, d, t, ng
r, l, s
ch, sh, z, j, v, th
Auditory Perceptual Processing
These students have difficulty in listening to or comprehending auditory information, especially under less optimal listening conditions.
Use visuals and other aids to help students comprehend beyond verbal expression.
This person has no voice. It may be simply the result of allergies or a cold or it could be of unknown origin.
Allow this student to have a way of expressing themselves outside of verbal communication such as writing, drawing or creating something.
Language disorder caused by a stroke or brain trauma.
These students will need to work closely with a speech pathologist. In class they will need to express or receive communication visually or through sign language.
Specific Learning Disability
Language Processing Disorder
Write on board
Allow tape recording
Speak slowly and clearly
Allow the use of laptops
Don't score against bad spelling
Provide a quiet area
Books on tape
Auditory Processing Disorder
Give them time to process and respond
vary pitch and tone of voice
More visual cues
Show rather than explain
Allow alternative proof of mastery
Use of a tape recorder
Avoid shaming for sloppy work
Use of word proccessor
Draw pictures of word problems
Suggest using graph paper
Allow use of scratch paper
Traumatic Brain Injury
children who have sustained a brain injury often experience changes in how they think, act, and feel. From a physical standpoint, they may regularly deal with things like fatigue, headaches, dizziness, and vision problems. Like all brain-injured patients, students with TBI can also experience a range of emotional changes as a result of their injury. In fact, behavioral changes may cause some of the most difficulties for children, their families, their teachers, and their peers. Brain-injured students can get upset easily and act out for reasons that aren’t entirely clear to those around them; they may also act aggressively or impulsively without realizing the consequences of their behavior, which can sometimes alienate them from their peers. As a result, they may experience anger, depression, anxiety, and/or social withdrawal.
Students with TBI can benefit from:
Schedule modifications (shorter days, rest periods, etc.)
Simplified verbal and written instructions
Extra time when introducing new concepts and vocabulary
A student “buddy” to help with instructions and assignments
Assistance coping with the physical school environment
Help to build memory skills
Assistance with socially acceptable behaviors
Student should be considered individually and what helps one student with TBI might not help another. The teacher needs to work with the student on an individual basis to develop a plan of action that will provide the specific student with the greatest opportunity for success in the classroom.
Types of Assistance
Quiet work space
Life Skill training
Speech Recognition Softwar
IQ under 70
The official definition of a hearing impairment by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is “an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Some accommodation and technologies to assist hard of hearing students in school are having a text to speech device. Along with this, a hard of hearing student may be able to read lips. If this is the case, then they may be placed closer to the front so they may be able to read the teachers lips. If hard of hearing students prefer to have a person to do sign language then they may set more towards the back if they like. Also, if any videos are showing, then closed caption will be needed. Things a teacher may do is speak slower and/or repeat words, hand out notes at the beginning of class and control the classroom so other students will be aware of not speaking out of turn so the hard of hearing student will have a better chance of following. The teacher also needs to be aware of any background noise.
Special education aids
Assistive technology- text-to-speech technologies
hindered speech and communication skills
Generally accompanied by medical conditions such as seizures and "water on the brain" (hydrocephalus).
challenges with mobility and/or needing assistance in performing everyday activities
What does this mean?
"Multiple Disabilities" means just that, having simultaneous impairments. Such as intellectual disability-orthopedic disability. This means the child will need extended services for each disability. Adaptations will be required for both groups of disabilities. This does not include deafness and blindness because under IDEA it has its own category.
The official definition of deafness from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is “a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification. Some accommodation and technologies to assist deaf students in school are having a text to speech device. Along with this, a deaf student may be able to read lips. If this is the case, then they may be placed closer to the front so they may be able to read the teachers lips. If deaf students prefer to have a person to do sign language, then they may set more towards the back if they like. Also, if any videos are showing, then closed caption will be needed. Things a teacher may do is speak slower and/or repeat words, hand out notes at the beginning of class and control the classroom so other students will be aware of not speaking out of turn so the deaf student will have a better chance of following. The teacher also needs to be aware of any background noise.
Other impairments: cerebral palsy, amputations,fracture
Impairments from disease: bone tuberculosis
Congenital anomaly: club foot
Technological help can be items such as: speech recognition
software, screen reading software, augmentative and alternative communication devices, and academic software packages for students with disabilities
Devices for mobility
These device help with positioning them in the classroom: canes, walkers, crutches, wheelchairs, specialized exercise equipment, specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development
Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements
Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills
Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices
Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student