Unit 11 Coggle (Module 62 (DOWN SYNDROME: a condition of mild to severe…
Unit 11 Coggle
DOWN SYNDROME: a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life.
FLUID INTELLIGENCE: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
COHORT: a group of people from a given time period.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
GRIT: passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals.
TRIARCHIC THEORY: Sternberg's theory that people possess analytical, creative, and practical intelligence.
SAVANT SYNDROME: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES: Gardner argued that we have eight different intelligences-- he recognized linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalistic intelligences.
FACTOR ANALYSIS: the statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score.
GENERAL INTELLIGENCE (g): a general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities and therefore is measure by every task on an intelligence test.
INTELLIGENCE: mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
STEREOTYPE THREAT: a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
HERITABILITY: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.
INTELLIGENCE TESTS: methods for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
TEST CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDIZATION
PREDICTIVE VALIDITY: the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is supposed to predict.
CONTENT VALIDITY: the extent to which a test taps the pertinent behavior, or criterion.
VALIDITY: the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
RELIABILITY: the extent to which a test yields consistent results.
NORMAL CURVE: the symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
STANDARDIZATION: defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
WESCHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE (WAIS): the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and nonverbal subtests
APTITUDE TEST: a test designed to predict a person's future performance/capacity to learn.
ACHIEVEMENT TEST: a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ): defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. On contemporary tests, the average score is 100.
STANFORD-BINET: the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
MENTAL AGE: Alfred Binet's measure of intelligence, the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.