Criminal Psychology-Topic 3 (Lemon and Higham (Research method is a review…
Criminal Psychology-Topic 3
is to use a police identity parade, six people (suspect and 5 foils) will line up against a wall. The victim or witness will view line up behind one way screen and asked if can identify the perpetrator. Sometimes the lineup will speak a certain phrase so witness can identify offender by both sight and voice. One major problems is that victim/witness may feel intimidated, it is also time consuming.
is the VIPER system developed in the 1990s. VIPER is a computer system which uses a national database of images to compile a video line up. The victim/witness will watch a DVD of a video id parade. Film lasts approx 3 minutes and must be viewed at least twice. Benefits is that it can eliminate feelings of intimidation and is easier (and cheaper) to carry out.
Caution has to be taken when relying on the testimony of an eyewitness. Research shown that several factors decrees the accuracy. This includes weapon focus which refers to the concentration of a witness attention on a weapon which results in difficulty remembering other details of the scene like what the perpetrator looked like. Loftus and Messo found there was less accurate identification of the suspect when a weapon was present.
free to ask witnesses/suspects whatever questions they feel are relevant. Police will frequently interrupt and ask short answer question- not allowing the witness to elaborate. Questioning often followed an inappropriate sequences of questions- not in chronological order. Not actually referring to any specific technique.
aims to maximise the maximise the information given by a victim/witness. Aims to maximise the number of potential retrieval routes and to benefit from memory overlap and alternate retrieval cue. This technique was devised by Fisher&Geiselman.
1)Reinstate context- mentally reinstating the context of the event, mentally taking them back to the event (smell,see hear)
2)Report everything- asking witnesses to report absolutely everything, all the facts
3)Changing perspective-recalling the event from a variety of perspectives
4)Change order- asking witnesses to recall the event in various orders, forward, backwards
Fisher&Geiselman studied 16 experienced detectives from Florida, 7 were trained to use the CI technique and other 9 as the control group. Training included four one hour training sessions. They found that 63% more info was recorded by those trained to use the CI technique.
Enhanced cognitive interview:-
same four stages as the CI but adds social aspects to the interview setting which appear to improve communication. Includes minimising any distractions, allowing for a pause between response and next question, being sensitive as possible, tailoring language used to suit the eyewitness. Provides an environment that allows for increased context reinstatement from the participant
Reid's 9 steps of interrogation
1)Direct confrontation- telling suspect they are guilty
2)Chance to shift the blame- showing sympathy
3)Never allow the suspect to deny guilt- always interrupt suspect when claiming innocence
4)Ignore excuses- push for a confession
5)Reinforce sincerity- eye contact, first names
6)If suspect cries infer guilt
7)Pose 'alternate question'- both inferring guilt
8)Get the suspect to admit guilt in front of witness
9)Get a confession signed
Lemon and Higham
Research method is a review article. Aim is to critique the Cognitive Interview
Theme 1:Ineffectiveness of components of the CI
component of the CI.
Witness reporting everything is particularly useful can give more accurate account
Recall from perspectives
stage as its tended not to be used
Retrieval from different orders is that usefulness of this stage is unclear.
Enhanced CI emphasises effective communication to enhance memory retrieval.
Theme 2:Comparison with other interview methods
not standardised and lot of variability so is difficult to use as a comparison group when comparing to CI
both look at cognitive aspects so the GI may be a reasonable comparison group for CI
aims to build a rapport n it non interruptive which is also present in CI. However the SI and CI are different in that the cognitive techniques are only with CI. so amount of info gained in CI exceeds that of SI
Both guided and structured interview are better control groups than standard police interview.
Theme 3:Measuring memory performance
This is the DV in the research. The most common measure is % of interview statements that are correct/incorrect. The research ignores the amount of the reported info. Doesn't allow for an effective measure of how memory operates.
Theme 4:Quality of training
Early studies didn't specify the amount and quality of training needed for the CI. Quality and quantity of training are key to its effectiveness as a method for interviewing witness.
Feedback on interviewer performance is important to enhance performance.
Training needs to focus on: length of training, quality of training, background of the interviewers and their attitudes towards training.
One final interview technique: PEACE model
Planning and Preparation:-
includes what to consider when planning for an interview i.e. plot timelines. They also need to consider practical issues i.e. where the interview will take place
Engage and Explain:-
interviews should attempt to build a rapport with the witness, should explain the purpose of the interview
obtaining the interviewee's account, clarifying and challenging. Allow witness to give account with no interruptions, then use open questions and clarify witness statement. Interviewer can also challenge aspects that are untrue.
should finish the interview appropriately, should reinforce the rapport built and make more likely the witness will speak to them again. Should make sure witness has contact details for any further questions
interviewer needs to evaluate what was achieved during the interview and how it fits into the whole investigation. Need to establish whether everything required has been addressed and any details to follow up on.