Skill Acquisition -Topic 8 (Muli-Store Memory Model (The Long Term Memory…
Skill Acquisition -Topic 8
The perceptual mechanism which filters out irrelevant stimuli and allows relevant stimuli to be focused on. Aids accurate perception and decision making.
A perceptual mechanism used to make sense of stimuli received by sensory organs and make decisions about which motor programmes to use.
Strategies to Improve Retention and Retrieval
Rehearsal / Association (Transfer) / Simplicity / Organisation (Chunking) / Mental Imagery / Meaningfulness / Enjoyment / Uniqueness / Positive Reinforcement
Rehearsal / Practice
Practicing the correct technique and correct response to a stimulus to groove and overlearn a skill.
This strengthens the S-R bonds which helps develop correct motor programmes in the memory and also makes them easier to retrieve.
Association / Linking
Applying learning in one context to another. Or applying learning of one skill to the learning of another skill if they have similar techniques or similar S-R bonds (Transfer of Learning).
If the learning experience is satisfying and fun then information is more likely to be remembered.
Avoiding overloading a performer so that they can concentrate on the key elements of a skill which aids memory.
If a skill is learn in a unique manner then it is more likely to be remembered.
Organisation / Chunking
Combining sub-routines, stimulus or information together when learning to optimise retention and recall.
When the importance of a skill and its value to the performer is highlighted the performer is more likely to commit it to memory.
Visualising a skill as performed in the perfect technical model can improve retention and retrieval as the performer has a mental image.
Muli-Store Memory Model
The Long Term Memory
Information from past experiences stored here (decisions / motor programmes / schema). Information encoded from STM and compared to previous experiences to aid decision making. Limitless capacity for a permanent duration. Easier retrieval for over learnt skills.
The Short Term Memory
Attended information from STSS is compared to previously learnt information in the LTM to aid decision making. Effector mechanisms activated and movements initiated. Duration is less than 30 seconds before information is lost or encoded to LTM.
Short Term Sensory Store
Stimuli enters here via sensory organs. Selective attention is activated here. Limitless capacity for less than a second.
May be too simplistic and doesn't explain why we remember some things better than others. Does not effectively prove a distinction between STM and LTM particularly in how they interact.
Simplifies the memory process to aid understanding. Shows distinctions between STM and LTM helping to explain conditions like amnesia.
Levels of Processing
Levels of Processing - Semantic Level
The deepest level of processing considers the reasons why a skill is being performed at a certain time and in a certain way to aid performance. Develops deeper understanding to aid memory.
Levels of Processing - Phonetic Level
Involves the processing of sound - receiving verbal guidance and extrinsic feedback.
Levels of Processing - Structural Level
A shallow processing level - what a skill looks like (demonstrations).
Explains why we remember some information better than others based on importance. Explains that the longer we consider information the better we remember it.
Longer processing time doesn't always lead to better recall.
No explanation of what deep processing actually is.
Doesn't account for individual differences (the determined forgetting basics or those who are unfocused performing effectively).