Skill Acquisition - Topic 5/6 (Autonomous Stage (Manual Guidance ( For…
Skill Acquisition - Topic 5/6
Habitual over learnt motor programmes stored in LTM. Efficient, fluent and rhythmic skills. Little conscious control required. Less need for extrinsic feedback. Practice required to stay in this stage
Mental model matched to performance. Motor programmes formed through practice and rehearsal. Intrinsic feedback / kinaesthetic feedback can be used. Less mistakes during trial and error. Fluency, timing and co-ordination improve. Some learners never leave this stage.
Requires conscious thought on sub-routines. Mental picture formed. Extrinsic feedback only as unable to use intrinsic feedback. Lack of fluency and rhythm. Trial and error as key features.
For highly complex or difficult moves. Should be limited / used less in this stage to encourage kinaesthetic awareness.
The main method for this stage of learning. Advanced tactics and strategies can be focused on. Positive and negative feedback can be used with high levels of technical detail.
Mechanical aids that create difficulty and challenge (bowling machines on a difficult setting).
Advanced performers can be reminded of basic moves. Videos of elite performers can be used to allow analysis of performance.
Using mechanical aids to practice more complex skills and groove a correct
response (bowling machine / twisting belt in trampolining).
To help with more advanced / specific body positions and movements. Should be gradually removed to prevent over-reliance.
Feedback that helps refine, correct and develop skills. Tactics and strategies can be introduced verbally.
Demonstrations of more difficult or new skills can be given to help a learner
Supporting movements to increase safety, confidence, timing and to develop
kinesthesis / proprioception.
Giving basic information about what needs to be done using positive feedback focusing on key coaching points to correct errors.
Using a mechanical aid to increase safety, build confidence, learn basics and
develop kinesthesis (stabilisers / floats).
Demonstrations give beginners a mental picture of what the skill should look
Types of Guidance
Physical 'hands on' support of a performer which places them in the correct position or guides them through a movement pattern.
Giving instructions which talk a performer through a skill and gives feedback that advises them how to improve.
Using aids, equipment or technology to support a performer.
Watching a demonstration of how to perform a skill correctly.