Reading Map #3 - Pauline Muljana (Encoding techniques, transferring from…
Reading Map #3 - Pauline Muljana
Encoding techniques, transferring from working memory to long-term memory (Khan Academy, 2013).
Grouping info into meaningful units
Creating vivid image of the items to be remembered
Method of loci
Using location as a clue to remember
Creating acronym to remember
Imagining to do it (pretending to teach/present)
Spreading out study sessions
Designing devices: Adjusting to what humans are, not what they should be, referred as human-centered design (Norman, 2013).
Should engender nice experiences and consider both cognition and emotion.
Relationship between controller and the items being controlled.
The outcome of an interaction.
Communicating where the interaction should occur.
Relationship between object and human, giving message how humans may interact with that object
Self-explanation of how items work, through system image.
Requiring great design and management to meet the needs of users: functionality, usability, maintainability
Reflection and takeaway
How can these encoding technique be implemented in a learning event?
Online course can be designed in modular units sequentially from basic to advanced difficulty. Each module should include consistent structure, e.g. learning outcomes, resources, and assignment(s) with reasonable timeline. Each new module is opened by a recap from last module and ended by a short summary of the current module. These address rote rehearsal, chunking and spacing techniques.
When teaching a foreign language to young children, catchy songs can be used to introduce new vocabularies.
Students can be assigned to present a topic to help them "pretend to teach" their classmates.
When introducing a complex concept, an analogy can be used to promote better comprehension.
Does a capability to use a device also depend on the users' existing knowledge & experience? Why are some people more adept on utilizing a device that other people?
This reminds me of the vital role of need analysis to understand who our users or learners are. That way, learning design can be geared toward their characteristics, instead of expecting them to do what we want them to do.
During need analysis, it is also essential to think about who will maintain the product and how it will be maintained. For example, an Instructional Designer designing an online course template should consider how instructor(s) will maintain or reuse this course for future semesters.
Each human is unique. It is challenging to design a product that can meet everybody's need & behavior. For example, outward-open door shouldn't be applied to all doors. In the case of emergency where people have to stay/hide inside, it'll be hard to block an outward-open door.
Again, this is another reminder of how important a need analysis is. Good need analysis should also cover contextual analysis. That way, designers can consider any possible settings of where and how the users or learners will use the product.
How do we appropriately provide feedback?
"Just-right" feedback is good (Norman, 2013). When sending course updates, it is important to remember to do it consistently or as needed (e.g. weekly course announcement sent via email to students), instead of sending it too frequent or too seldom.
Don't be embarrassed to ask for feedback from the users or learners for future improvements.
This can be pursued through survey and research.
Humans' everyday actions (Norman, 2013)
7 stages: (execution) goal, plan, specify, perform; (evaluation) perceive, interpret, compare.
No necessary to go through all stages, but completing only one stage is not satisfying. May go through the stages in cycle.
Influenced by human thought and mind
Declarative memory (e.g. storing facts)
Procedural memory (requires mastery)
Cognition + emotion
Cognitive and emotive processing
Current situation assessment and immediate response (subconscious)
Designers should consider aesthetic appeal to design.
Well-learned actions (subconscious)
Designers should providing appropriate feedback to meet users' expectation.
Reasoning and decision-making (conscious).
Who blames who?
Blaming the environment falsely
Learning and improvement opportunities for designers
Use 7 fundamental principles of design