Britain and Europe (The different ways that people felt about Europe:…
Britain and Europe
The different ways that people felt about Europe: Europe did not convince everybody especially not Britain. Macmillan (stop-go) understood that he need to do something tho help the economy Conservative and Labour left on 1967 both agreed that they should try to integrate Europe.
Skeptics were the Gateskell was not in favor. Wilson understood that titian could not survive (B. economy growing but not as fast). They had prestige until the Suez Crisis where they realized they were losing their position as a world power. Economic realism, they saw they had lost some of their world power.+ Trade with Commonwealth decreasing.
However the context of the CW made it that Britain was supportive to Europe nonetheless.
- 1st application was Macmillan in early 1961
- 2nd application Heat 1967
- Willie Whitelaw application, need to join the EEC filed in the 70s when it finally happened during the oil crisis.
Joining Europe created division within parties though it was seen as something beneficial economically mostly. in the mean time Tried to preserve the special relationship with US, 1st Wilson but difficult because Labour not approving of the Vietnam war.
Heath succeeded in the 70s turned conservatives into pro-europeans (one of the economically realist).
Labour was skeptical (e.g. Blair did not appose of the Eurozone) about Europe for a long time they saw it as capitalistic organization. All this changed in the 80s when The union had laws to protect the workers. Europe was appealing because it was based on providing.
Thatcher and even Labour were not agreeing on the sovereignty they continued to feel concerned by it After trying for years (showing Europe was also part of consensus)--> achieved their goals joined and then began questioning if they could not do better w/ out. Some Nostalgia linked to the fact they lost empire and prestige
Europe was criticized in the 70s a lot of money was spent on the common Agricultural policy
Different phase of the European integration : 1957 the Treaty of Rome: The EEC created --> Britain refused to stand a role in this.
- 1958-70 DeGaulle vetoed
- Finally joined in the 70s Europhile Heath made it happen,
New political project : Common market.
- Labour was the most opposed to Europe until the referendum.
- In the 80s those who doubted the most about the Union were the conservatives especially Thatcher (Sovereignty)
--> the issue on Europe created division before and after.
REFERENDUM Brought both opposing sides of each party together.
EUROPEAN DEBATE is a appropriate given the notion of Euro-philes ad Euro-skepitcs --> some did not know where they stood and what to think about it (mixed feelings).
Case for Britain in Europe: Economic Realism Macmillan 1st. Stop-go was not cutting it the issue of joining the EEC for economic sakes became a debate which made it a part of consensus. Members of the EEC experienced rapid growth --> Common market was successful. Loss of position, in the world losing colonies and sovereignty the Suez Crisis made it even harder to "surrender" to the EEC --> after the incident joining EEC became important. United agains the threat of communism. Edward Heath chief negotiator part of the 1st attempt in 1961 he became PM later in 1975.
Willie Whitelaw, a Europhile who managed to turn the conservatives within his party into Europhiles themselves. He voted yes during the 1975 referendum (turning point for Labour in regards to Europe).
Case against Britain in Europe :
Overall taking the Case for/against Britain in Europe: pros and cons shows mixed feelings about different aspects and issues of the European union on different scales. Failed to join the Union sooner --> DeGaulle vetoed Joined when Heath PM early 70s and DG had passed.
- Labour saw Europe as a capitalist club (because working together to fight communism).
- On the opposite Conservatives had a fear of socialism Thatcher in 80s for instance the American model was more desirable.
*Concerned about National Sovereignty (loss of Empire feeling of Nostalgia was not ready to betray traditional ties e.g; Commonwealth until trade became weaker and weaker), Having a system were an unelected individual has consequential power. --> Thatcher agreed with Labour on the point, they will not surrender power to an unelected bureaucrat in Brussels.
- WWII legacy: collective and strong anti German feeling, Europe needed greater integration
- At a smaller Scale : the businessmen : the integration would prove harmful for the Economy
- Criticism of Europe: corrupted, non efficient, capitalist, failure to reform policies (especially agricultural one CAP)
Role of DeGaulle in British integration
- DeGaulle vetoes British access to the EU, 50s cooperation between the 2 powerful neurons France/ Germany wanted to keep it.
- Britain in Europe would be like the American Trojan horse
- Britian rival
- Rooted in more personal reasons, resenting his treatment during the war (especially by Britain + US).
Britain only became a member when Pompidou was president
BRITAIN A FOUNDING MEMBER: EEC TOR + Messina conference both In 1975 --> creating 2 important communities 1st : ECSC. Britain was supportive but did not necessarily wish the same for themselves. Churchill said integration was a good thing yet he didn't necessarily want Britain to join. The Coal and Steal industry had been nationalized in 1955 by Attlee + sovereignty ---> not good conditions to join . confident in their decision until Suez Crisis and realized they made a mistake but the TOR had already been signed --> too lated
The Treaty of Rome: 1957 with the original members, creation of the EEC which Britain rejected. Britain felt closer to the US and was not interested in joining. 6 countries founded the ECSC , TOR expand it --> economic community, customs union and agricultural policy. Britain had been invited to join but declined (they didn't need it) in 1956. during the meeting a representative of Britain sent, tried to dismiss the ECSC. Britain chose to create Free trade w/ non EU members in one year this showed how desperate they were (couldn't keep up with Europe). P
About agriculture: make Europe self sufficient and wanted to create a community where freedom of flows and trade. CAP cost a lot of money to England (not granted subsidies because they relied less on agriculture angered Thatcher).
Why Britain changed her mind: Losing their Empire and their position as a world power. Political cartoons show Macmillan in a boat rowing to safety where DG is waiting --> Britain needed to be save by Europe they were on a sinking ship. DG is standing on a ladder he has the option to save Britain or not. The economic struggles of Britain showed by the political cartoon w/ young and pretty common market , Britain cannot bare to part with Commonwealth and British codes --> integrating Europe would be seen as a betrayal towards old England
Creation of the European Coal and Steal community. Need to find a way to accelerate economic recovery. Not accepted widely.
Did show that supra nationality could be beneficial. The EEC is constituted of 3 institutions.
High authority: people appointed not elected (example of supra nationality), executive power, changes or enforces policies.
- Assembly: used to be an advisor, only suggestions they were nominated by their own parliament.
The Idea of supra nationality did not please Britain fear of losing sovereignty and recalling Thatcher who also disliked bureaucracy wondering why Britain should join a federation where people are collectively ruled by nation that was not elected.
Concerning the ECSE the coal and steal resources were pulled by the authorities. They were 7 countries the members were the same as for the ECSC.
Monet's Brainchild was named the Schuman plan the founding text pf European construction, founded the ECSC
Limits in the European construction: Though this community could benefit countries in multiple ways some skills in argumentation and convincing had to be used for some. It would be difficult to make partners with certain. countries like Germany and France, the current French government had fought against the occupation but there was still Anger and resentment towards the French. It was not easy to integrate them but it succeeded because the purpose was so great. The Soviet Threat also accelerated integration --> need to fight against communism. Controlling the resources and weapons of Germany to prevent war. Germany was eventually given economic power in the union. Italy joined because it would benefit them economically and Benelux joined because it would benefit them. Britain was invited to join but decline (Attlee had nationalized key industries). Other members accepted Britain's refusal, the threat of war was pushed away and Europe was doing very good economically without Britain....
The controversy of Britain joining Europe: Conservatives and Labour left even after referendum could still be skeptical. Thatcher was not personally pro Europe but ended up bidding the 2 together. The ones working closest to her were actually Europhiles. She does show her discontent (one of the reasons why she had to resign) --> less diplomatic and tolerant---> more division within parties on the European issue (e.g. ERM). Others will say that Thatcher did not change, that Europe was becoming a super state because so focused on economic integration and single market. Major : division in party, signed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.
The purpose of the EU and the common response to that project. Skeptical about the creation of a union, nationalism is what led to conflict and after the war it was still present --> creating a union would mean less reasons to fight. projects of creating a similar system post WWI yet things did not go as planned, quickly dismissed but came back after WWII. --> prevent another huge conflict (caused by nationalism) Benelux were the first members. Need for European integration because, fear of communism, To ease tensions between France and Germany 2 powerful nations, to solve the economic chaos.
Early stages of the union 1945-1973: nationalism scared everyone, so many people had died became of it. the aftermath of the war, people and their jobs were affected. Jean Monet initiated improvement in France : dreamed of proper political union. ...
- Europe had to be united against the Soviet Union --> Council of Europe was created: with the original members discussing only.
- Churchill did support the idea of a federation for Europe but without counting Britain in it : to him Britain would be better off without him did not wish for sovereignty (A decision should not be made a single actor).
- Organized European Economic cooperation OEEC or OECD
- 1948 Marshall aid (from the US)
The Failures: Macmillan successful Tory economic realism he saw they had to join EEC, did affect his popularity a little bit. He made 1st application unsuccessful vetoed
- Wilson 2nd application: party divided , post war boom economy well then hit by the oil crisis should have joined sooner (heart to convince everyone)
- Heath 3rd and final attempt, ironically it was the Labour Party that led to a successful integration and made up for the past mistakes.
1975 referendum 2:1 --> promised by Wilson to deal with division in his party. integration nationally accepted*
58 V Republic: De Gaulle
611st application to the EEC
63 rejected —> Dg vetoed
67Failed application by Wilson
69 Dg resignation
73 B. 1/ 3 new members of EEC
75 referendum yes, Heath replaced by Thatcher
86 Single European Act
90 G. Reunification fall of T.
92 EU created MT`
95 John Mayor elected —> C.
97 C. Defeat
99 € created