Asian Philosophy and Concepts- Megan Owen (Indian Philosophy (The Vedas…
Asian Philosophy and Concepts- Megan Owen
Chinese/East Asian Philosophy
Confucianism- Lots of respect and emphasis on teachers and social order. Familial Piety played a key role in the interactions of followers. Thought that the ruler of a country should set a moral example for the people and give them someone to look up to.
The Analects of Confucius
Xunzi- One of Confucius's followers, disagreed with Mencius on the idea of inherent good existing within Human beings. He believed that people lacked morals and that they must be taught to them.
Neo-Confucianism- a new form of thinking about Confucianism in china in response to the newer philosophies of the time, Taoism and Buddhism
Confucius- Placed a focus on Teaching, Ritual, and respecting family and elders. He believed that becoming a better person would make one a better ruler.
Mencius- Believed and taught that Humans have an innate desire to do good, and that this desire exists within every person to some level.
The 5 Essential Relationships
Friend and Friend
Older Brother and Younger Brother
Father and Son
Ruler and Subject
Husband and Wife
Daoism- Emphasis on the "natural path". Daoists believed in "active inaction", meaning that everything should be done without care for the outcome, and if you are following natures path then you will naturally be doing what is moral and good.
The Dao- "The Way"
Dao De Jing
A text of Daoism that states that the Way is unique for each person and places an emphasis on inaction and not having a desire towards a particular outcome in any given situation.
Mao Tse Tsung- a leader of the Communist Party within China, and believed in Chinese Marxist Philosophy. Wanted to destroy anything within China that did not go along with his vision for the country's future.
The New Democracy
The Diamond Sutra
The Bhagavad Gita
The Yoga Sutras
The Eight Limbs of Yoga
Yamas- The abstinence of Evil
Pranayama- Control of Breath
Pratyahara-Control of the Mind
Samadhi- Absorbtion to the atman
Atman- Part of the Brahman that we perceive as our sense of self
Brahman- this is everything, and everything is made up of Brahman
A school of thought that didn't fit in with the others of the time. Promoted selfish behaviors, and believed in a world that was fully material, with nothing in existence other than the physical world.
Completely Rejects the idea of an Afterlife or other spiritual plane.
The Twelve Reflections
The 3 Tiers of the Universe
The Upper World- The place for those who have rid themselves of Karma, and have a pure conciousness
Middle World- The things that make up the earth as we know it- Plants, animals, and bodies. This is also home to Karma and the Gunas
Karma- The smallest form of matter which makes up everything, very similar to atomic theory. You pick up more karma depending on what sort of actions you take.
The Lower Level- Where souls are punished for wrongdoings. Not a permanent place, but treated as more of a learning opportunity and given a chance to come back to the Middle world and start over
4 Noble Truths
Origin of Suffering (Samudaya)
Cessation of Suffering (Nirodha)
Path to the Cessation of Suffering (Magga)
The Eightfold Path- The path to Nirvana
Mahatma Ghandi- Advocated peaceful protest in India and was a Hindu spiritual and philosophical leader
Sattva: Light, Goodness, Harmony
Rajas:Action, Passion, Confusion
Tamas: Darkness, Destruction, Chaos