Presbyterians and religious radicalism (Radical religious groups (Baptist-…
Presbyterians and religious radicalism
Charles' policies towards Scotland
Charles I became king of England and also Scotland but didn't visit until 1633. During his visit Charles announced intention to replace Scottish Prayer Book, regarded as threat prepared to resist Charles' policy
The Scottish Rebellion
On 23 July, Laudian Prayer Book read for the first time in Scotland Rebellion. The aim of the Scots was to show Charles he should withdraw it.
In 1638, 300,000 Scots signed the National Covenant in protest against Charles' actions. Charles was determined to crush growing movement but this merely escalated the revolt
The Scottish Rebellion weakened Charles' authority over church and state and was a key factor leading to outbreak of civil war in 1642.
During and after the civil war, religious divisions multiplied, with the creation of a number of radical religious groups.
Radical religious groups
Baptist- believed in adult, rather than infant, baptism. They separated from the Church of England and preached that only those 'born again' through adult baptism
Ranters- Included number of radical writers. Not an organised group but they rejected all forms of organised religion, rejected concept of sin
Millenarians-Believed that Jesus would soon return to earth and reign for1,000 years.
Muggletonains- Followers Lodowicke Muggleton and John Reeve who, after the execution of Charles I, claimed that the end of the world was imminent
Fifth Monarchists- Radical millenarians who, by 1650, had formed into a political grouping under Major-General Thomas Harrison.
Significant form of religious radicalism that developed in the 1650s Quakerism was significant for two reasons:
Late 1650s the Quaker moment had grown to about 50,000 members.
Before 1660 the Quaker movement was willing to take direct political action. Commitment to political action included a willingnes to use violence to achieve their aims
Development of Quakerism linked to the New Model Army in that many Quakers had served in the army.
Political order down following Cromwell's death, Quaker numbers increased and their chief patron, the New Model Army General Lambert, more influentiual
Restoration of the monarchy seen by political elite as a way of reimposing order and removing the threat of military dictatorship under Lambert, based on Quaker support.