Appalling conditions for the lower classes
Poor Law of 1834: compelled the poor to work in workhouses
1847 Ten-Hour Bill: government could regulate industry
Chartists - universal male suffrage
Movements aimed at improving conditions for the workers
Principles of general strike and collective bargaining
Protectionism (high tariffs on imports) to protect local industries from competitors.
Socialist Democratic Parties, British Labour Party set up in 1900
Working class given power
Reform by government action
Expanded sewage, water and electricity services, state primary education, welfare legislation, pension = better health, better nutrition, better clothing, longer life expectancy
Steady growth of population in industrial towns
General rise in living standards
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain?
Glorious Revolution of 1688
Established a constitutional monarchy and gave Britain a stable government where trade and commerce could flourish.
Due to more efficient farming and animal breeding methods, there was an increase in production and a decrease in famine. Caused the rural-urban shift.
British overseas trade and colonial empire
Britain enlarged her colonial empire, opening up new markets for her goods and acquiring raw materials for manufacturing industries
Developed system of banking and insurance
No internal customs barriers
British nobles started opening up coal, stone or iron mines. Others invested in canals, aqueducts and bridges to provide a cheap, efficient way of transporting goods.
The flying shuttle and the spinning jenny increased the rate of production of cotton clothing.
Spinning mills opened up (Cromford Mill, 1870)
New method to smelt iron using coke discovered.
Cast iron used to make cannons and construct bridges.
Steam pump invented to pump water out of coal mines.
Increased iron output and production because only machines made of iron could withstand the strain of steam power. Water power became obsolete.
Heavy machinery needed to be transported.
1825: first public railway for goods and passengers inaugurated between Stockton and Darlington.
How did the Industrial Revolution spread
Old tradition of cloth-making and iron-works.
Government sponsored the construction of railways and canals
Industrialisation very slow
Few coal resources
Napoleon III: banks for agriculture and industry set up, new harbours built, industries in silk, fashion, linens, carpets and glassware opened.
Building of the railways
Steel, chemical and electric industries
Alfred Krupp and arms industry in the Ruhr
1859: Mineral oil discovered in Pennysylvania
Convention of the combustion engine developed into motor-car and airplane
Trans-Siberian railway (1890 - 1914)
Russia received help by French and Belgian loans.
Europe: 18th Century Economic Changes
The Industrial Revolution was the process by which hand craftsmanship in the home or workshop was replaced by machine-work in factories
Europe was open to new ideas due to the Scientific Revolution