Digital Change Management - week 7 - Core Models of Change (Emery 1999 , …
Digital Change Management - week 7 - Core Models of Change
Bansler and Havn 2002
knowledge management systems KMS
- information systems designed to facilitate the sharing and reuse of knowledge
problems with knowledge management systems
?; implementation and reluctance of intended users
Purpose of the paper
; This study seeks to better understand the process of KMS implementation and establish a theoretical framework for examining the underlying dynamics of adoption and use. By using a case study from Beta Corporation - failure implement.
argument of the paper
; when implementing KMS systems you need to (a) be sensitive to the 'collective sense making' of the users and (b) the social interactions of the users. In this context the writers focus on
concept of interdependence
and the phenomenon that the benefits of a system (or network) increase with the total number of users are well-known in telecommunication markets and markets for durable consumer goods. GREAT example of 'network effects' is a telephone, it wouldn't be useful to anyone unless other people had one.
Technologies or systems subject to strong network effects
tend to get off to a slow start and, then, either reach “critical mass” and exhibit explosive growth, or if they fail to do so, disappear (Shapiro & Varian 1999)
The notion of
positive feedback is crucial to understanding the adoption of new technologies in markets where network effects are significant
problems with implementing KMS systems by force
; implementing KMS by “brute force” is a poor strategy. (1) First, mandating usage and coercing users is likely to create hostility and tension, and may stimulate resistance against the technology. (2) Second, successful implementation of KMS requires that the intended users are motivated to share their knowledge with others and participate actively in the implementation process. In most cases, implementation success or failure will therefore depend on the perceived benefits and costs to individual users (now and in the near future)
Case study; Something that went wrong with the implementation of the database and the authors reflect why. The SHARE database is an example of a knowledge sharing system with strong, indirect network effects. The users of the system can play two different roles, either as contributors of new best practices or as information seekers searching the database for useful ideas and processes.
Case Study; (1) we have identified a positive feedback loop in the system: When the number of information seekers goes up, it becomes more attractive to make submission and the number of contributors grows. (2) the submissions’ quality – in terms of innovation, general usefulness, clarity of presentation, etc. – is of paramount importance. (3) Remember
people do not forget easily
e.g. after submitting so much (and getting their submissions rejected 8 out of 10), people, whether they dropped the 'reviewers/reviewing process or not', were not willing/encouraged to re-submit or start submitting because the network effects in the organisation/company were strong and people didn't want to experience the same as others or the same again (rejection of submissions)
Learnings from the case study
The startup problem
; The trouble is that early adopters experience few benefits (and sometimes high costs) from using the new technology because the number of users is too low. Thus, the adoption and use of the technology, even though useful and beneficial, cannot get started by itself
Theories of change
'; (1) The Satir Change Model says that as we cope with unexpected or significant change, we predictably move through four stages: (1)
Late Status Quo
(changes are small and planned e.g. first job, house and wife = going to plan), (2)
The Foreign Element
(something happens which interjects with the status quo, an external element like the lottery or a change in job title can introduce new change and smash the status quo, company closing is a good example). (3)
(now everything is heated, 'confusion, fright, hurt, feeling uncomfortable, feeling elated or a strong sense of urgency are common feelings, everything is raw, new and can be panicked, also a very creative time). (4)
The Transforming Idea
(b/c you are creative, you get new ideas, like going back to school when job hunting hasn't worked) (5)
Practice and Integration
(this is where you start to try your new idea or new behaviour, you learn and quickly, while making a lot of mistakes), (6)
New Status Quo
(you start to see amazing results, things pay off).
Remember, after a while the excitement of the sixth stage will 'wear off' and you will likely enter the 'status quo' phase again and then this will re-start the process
Focus of the paper; The Satir Change Model
(which describes the stages we go through as we experience significant change.)
paper; argues that the Satir Change Model is useful to understand software projects and, in turn, helps companies and individuals understand their own struggles.
Devotes the whole piece to
real life examples
of each stage of the Satir Change Model.
Conclusions of the paper
: (1) to manage each stage of the Satir Change Model you must effectively manage emotional reactions. (2) The model has four (or six, says I) main stages. (3) The Satir Change Model recognises that 'crisis' is just the realisation that things have not been functioning/good for a while.
Focus of the paper; this paper presents a model to be used for filling and handling the primary roles in an organisational IT diffusion process (based on the empirical study of a Scandinavian company - nicknamed SCANDI for the paper - ananonymous).
can be used to identify some important potential IT diffusion problems at an early stage, thereby making it possible to avoid the problems. It is most heavily inspired by management theory, diffusion of innovation theory and soft systems methodology.
about change from one state (today) to another (hopefully better) state. There are four key roles; (1) Owner - or Sponsor - the person or group endorsing the project, providing resources, and demanding the results.
(2) Diffusion project manager - the person heading the group that implements the change
(3) Champion - the person that in practice affects the target user and ensures the accomplishment of the change.
(4) The target user group - the users, specialists or managers that are to adopt something new, typically a new IT system. Besides the four central roles there are two other core elements in the role
; The purpose of the role model is to give full consideration to who occupies or is supposed to occupy the four key roles in an organisational diffusion process.
In this paper we have presented a model used to identify key roles to be filled and enacted in an organisational diffusion project e.g. those five/four roles
; Second we developed an approach where we used a traditional stakeholder analysis to identify all stakeholders. In one case we identified more than 30 stakeholders. Unfortunately we could not use all that information for anything meaningful. Therefore we ended up with a more simple and nimble role model (figure 3).