Resource Management-paper 2 (Food Management (Impact of food insecurity…
Resource Management-paper 2
Global Food Supply
Global patterns of food consumption
Canada, USA and Europe consume the most calories. In sub-Saharan Africa, daily calorie intake per head is below the recommended daily intake of 2000-2400 calories.
Global food consumption is increasing for several reasons...
There are growing populations
Increasing levels of development mean people can afford to buy more food.
Improved transport and storage means there is more food available.
Global patterns of food supply
USA, Brazil and UK have high outputs due to intensive farming and investment.
China and India have large populations and high agricultural outputs.
Sub-Sharan African countries produce less food. They have unreliable rainfall, low investment and a lack of training.
What is meant by food security
Food security - having access to enough affordable, nutritious food to maintain a healthy life
Countries which produce more food than is needed by their population have a food surplus.
Countries which do not produce enough food to feed their population and have to rely of imported food have a food deficit. Many of these countries also experience food insecurity.
Factors affecting food supply
- regions with extreme temperatures and rainfall struggle to produce food.
- in HICs, mechanisation and agribusiness give high levels of productivity.
Pests and diseases
- spread from the Tropics with rising temperatures.
- lack of water affects many areas that suffer food scarcity.
- can lead to the destruction of crops and livestock.
- the poorest people cannot afford technology, irrigation or fertilisers.
Impact of food insecurity
is widespread shortage of food often causing malnutrition, starvation and death.
involves the remove of fertile top soil layers by wind and water. There are several causes...
by animals reduces the amount of vegetation, leaving soil exposed.
Growing too many crops
can use up valuable nutrients, reducing soil fertility.
of marginal land to increase food production can lead to loss of fertility.
for farming removes the protective covering of the trees and increases surface run off.
- food prices are rising, mainly due to increased cost of fertilisers, food storage and transportation.
is the lack of a balanced diet, and deficiency in minerals and vitamins. It causes around 300 000 deaths per year and contributes to half of all child deaths, particularly in southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
- incidents of social unrest are often linked to large increases in the price of food. In 2011, the price of cooking oil and flour doubled. In Algeria, this led to five days of rioting, with four people killed.
How food supply can be increased
- the artificial watering of land. Irrigation projects can involve the construction of expensive dams and reservoirs, such as in the Indus Valley of Pakistan. They often benefit larger commercial farming.
Aeroponics and hydroponics
- plants are sprayed with fine water mist containing plant nutrients. Excess water is re-used. This enables small-scale farmers to increase
yields and lower production costs.
The 'new' green revolution
Focuses on sustainability and community.
It uses techniques such as:
Water harvesting and irrigation
Improving seed and livestock quality using science and technology.
Along with improved rural transport and affordable credit, these innovations have enabled the Indian state of Bahir to double its rice output.
Means using skills or materials that are cheap and easily available to increase output without putting people out of work.
It is particularly appropriate for people living in poorer countries.
Using living organisms to make or modify products or processes.
Includes the development of GM crops, which produce higher yields and uses fewer chemicals.
In the UK, there is opposition to GM crops because of the possible effects on the environment and human health.
The Indus Irrigation System
Improves food security for Pakistan, making 40% more land available for cultivation.
Irrigation has increased crop yields.
Diets have improved as a greater range of food products is available.
HEP is generated by the large dams.
Some farmers take an unfair share of water.
Poor irrigation techniques mean water is wasted. Salinsation (increased saltiness) can damage the soil.
Population growth will increase the demand for water.
High costs to maintain reservoir capacity.
Largest continuous irrigation scheme in the world
Link canals enable water to be transferred between rivers.
Over 1.6 million km of ditches and streams provide irrigation for Pakistan's agricultural land.
Sustainable food supply
is growing crops or rearing livestock without the use of artificial chemicals. Many people choose to pay higher prices for organic produce.
is a system of food production which follows the patterns and features of natural ecosystems.
Permaculture practices include:
is the cultivation, processing and distribution of food in and around settlements.
The Michigan Urban Farming Initiative
Aims to address problems of urban decay, poor diet and food insecurity in Detroit.
Urban communities are encouraged to work together to turn wasteland into productive farmland, providing jobs and easier access to healthy food.
Fish from sustainable sources
- almost 90% of the world's fisheries are fully or over-exploited. Sustainable fishing involves setting catch limits and monitoring fish breeding and fishing practices.
Meat from sustainable sources
- sustainable meat production involves small-scale livestock farms, using free-range or organic methods.
Prices may be higher in the shops but quality and animal welfare standards are higher.
Reducing food loss and waste
Around 32% of all food produced is lost or wasted each year.
Improved food storage and distribution using refrigerated containers.
Clearer food labelling such as 'Best before' or 'Use by'
Using sealed plastic bags to make fresh food last longer.
More sensible approach to using food that is past its 'Sell by' date.
The Makueni Food and Water Security Programme
The programme included...
Improving water supply by building sand dams for each village.
Providing a reliable source of water for crops and livestock.
A training programme to support local farmers.
Growing trees to reduce soil erosion.
The project has been very successful...
Crop yields and food security have increased.
Water-borne diseases have been reduced.
Less time is wasted fetching water.
Provision of energy in the UK
How the UK's energy mix has changed
Energy consumption has fallen in the UK in recent years, mainly due to decline of heavy industry and energy conservation.
By 2020, the UK aims to meet 15% of its energy requirement from renewable resources.
Why the UK's energy mix has changed
About 75% of the UK's known oil and natural gas reserves have been used up.
Coal consumption has declined because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions.
The UK's energy security is affected as it becomes increasingly dependent on imported energy.
However, fossil fuels are likely to remain important in the future because...
The UK's remaining reserves will provide energy for several decades.
Coal imports are cheap.
Shale gas deposits may be exploited in the future.
Impacts of energy exploitation
Nuclear power plants are expensive to build.
Decommissioning old plants is expensive.
New plants provide job opportunities.
Problem of safe processing and storage of radioactive waste.
Warm waste can harm local ecosystems.
High construction costs.
Local homeowners can have lower energy bills.
Visual impact on the landscape.
Help reduce carbon footprints.
Noise pollution from wind turbines.
Provision of food in the UK
How the demand for food is changing in the UK
Why the UK imports so much food
Demand for more exotic foods and seasonal produce all year round.
UK climate is unsuitable for production of some foods.
Availability of cheaper food from abroad.
The UK imports about 40% of the total food it consumes and this percentage is increasing.
The impact of importing food
Food can travel long distances; these are known as food miles.
Importing food adds to our carbon footprint. This comes from producing the energy for commercial cultivation, and from transport.
How the UK is responding to these challenges
People are being encouraged to eat locally produced foods according to food. To recent trends in UK farming are agribusiness and organic produce.
Lynford House Farm in East Anglia -
The land is intensively farmed, maximising the amount of food produced.
Pesticides and fertilisers are widely used.
Machinery costs are high but they increase efficiency.
A small number of workers are employed.
Began as an organic farm in Devon.
Now delivers organic vegetables from farms in Devon, Yorkshire, Peterborough and Hampshire.
This reduces food miles and also provides local employment.
Provision of water in the UK
The demands for water in the UK
Almost 50% of the world's water supply is used domestically.
Demand for water is expected to rise by 5% between 2015 and 2020 because of a rapidly growing population, more houses and an increase in the use of water-intensive domestic appliances such as dishwashers.
How far the UK's water supply meets demand
The north and west have a
, where supply exceeds demand.
The south and east have a
, where demand exceeds supply.
There is a growing need to increase water transfer to meet demand.
There is opposition because of the following things.
The effect on land and wildlife.
Greenhouse gases released by pumping water over long distances.
Water stress, which is where demand exceeds supply, is experienced in more than half of England.
Managing water quality
The Environment Agency manages water quality by...
Filtering water to remove sediment.
Purifying water by adding chlorine.
Imposing strict regulations.
Some groundwater sources have been polluted by...
Industrial sites discharge.
Agricultural chemical fertilisers.
Leaching from old underground mines.