times as many votes as the four other presidential Candidates
combined in the French presidential election
of December 1848,
This outcome occurred for several
reasons. First, Louis Napoleon had the great name of
his uncle, whom romantics had transformed from a dictator
into a demigod as they created a Napoleonic legend
Second, as Karl Marx stressed at the time,
middle-class and peasant property owners feared the
socialist challenge of urban workers, and they wanted a
tough ruler to provide protection,
With some misgivings,
he signed a bill to increase
greatly the role of the Catholic Church
in primary and secondary education,
. 'Illey did: 92 percent voted
to make him president for ten years. A year later, 97
percent in a plebiscite made him hereditary emperor.
were elected by universal male suffrage every six years,
and Louis Napoleon and his government took the parliamentary
elections very seriously.
Yet in the 18605, Napoleon Ill's
electoral system gradual.ly disintegrated.
s chief of state. In a final great plebiscite on the eve of
the disastrous war with Prussia, 7.5 million Frenchmen
voted in favor of the new constitution, and only
1.5 million opposed it. Napoleon III's attempt to reconcile
a strong national state with universal male suffrage
was still evolving and was doing so in ademocratic
A battleground for the Great
Powers after 1494, Italy was reorganized in 1815 at the congress ov vienaa
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