2.3 Utility Software
Utility software is system software to help analyse, configure, optimize or maintain a computer.
It is used to support the computer as a whole
Helps a computer do specific tasks.
Large amount of utility software is distributed within the operating system but it is not seen as part of the operating system.
User can install replacements or add additional utility software to do a range of different action depending on their needs
Anti virus software
Prevent,detect and remove malicious software.
Can protect your computer
Scan system to see any malicious software
Scan all websites to tell about risks.
Scans downloads to make sure you are not downloading malware or malicious software.
Computer software that is used to perform backups
They work by creating an exact copy of files, databases or entire computer system. They are then used in the event of a data loss or corruption
Business will often update their backups so that is minimises the amount of lost data should an issue occur.
Data compression software
Data compression is when information is encoded using fewer bits than the original copy. It can be lossless compression or lossy compression.
No information is lost in the compression process.
This means that the process can be reversed if needed as all of the information will still be present.
There are lossless file types, too. Such as PNG- an image type that will keep its quality for a very long time.
Disk Cleaners software
A disk cleaner is a software that finds and deletes potentially unwanted files
From a computer. The main purpose of it is to try and free up disk space, this is either to free up disk space or to protect privacy.
It will delete files such as temporary files, the recycle bin, old back ups etc.
In terms of ”protection privacy” it would delete things such as cookies, or log files etc.
Disk defragmentation software scans your amount of fragmentation
It does this by organising the contents of the storage device (hard drive etc) into the smallest number of “fragments” possible.
It will basically find similar sized files or similar and put them together .This frees up space as rather these files being in multiple location, it condenses it all into one location.
File management software
Software that provides a user interface to allow the user to manage files and folders.
The most common features of this software is:
Creating files and folders
Opening files and folders
Renaming files and folders
Moving or copying files and folders
Deleting old files
Searching for lost files
Lossy data is where some data is lost in the compression process.
Although it loses information, it picks what information is lost.
The information lost is non essential details from the data source to save storage space, allowing more to be saved.
2.5 Communication methods
VOIP- voice over internet protocol
This is an system that allows the human voice(analogue signal) to be converted to digital so that the telephone calls may be made over the internet. Phone to phone communication can be also use this technology
Allows two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-ways audio transmission.
The use of a dedicated website to communicate informally with other members of the site, by posting. Eg images, messages
This is the conduct of a video conferencing which allows two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two ways audio and video transmission
Email - electronic mail
Email is a way that a computer user, including users of mobile phones such as blackberry and iphones connected to the internet. Can communicate with other connected users through text and by sending documents, images, sound and video clips as attachments.
The exchange of typed messages between computer users in real time via the internet
SMS- (short message service) is a system that allows mobile phone users to send and receive text messages.
The software that has been designed to assist people with basic tasks, usually providing information using natural language. Eg. siri , alexa, cortana
2.1 Types of software
Software with source code that can be inspected, modified and enhanced by anyone. Part of the code the user does not see. For example, Linux, Firefox and Apache.
Code written by programmers that can be translated by compilers to instruct a computer to carry out an action. Part of the software that surface-level users can never see. The programmers can improve, fix, modify or add on to it. Closed guarded because it’s considered trade secret and important for a business. For example, Microsoft windows, Adobe flash player and iTunes.
Off the shelf software
Designed to provide a general set of features that a broad range of customers will find useful. Is the most popular and widely used software for example, web browsers, apps and games.
Software that is distributed on an honour system - you use the product, and pay a small fee if you feel it is merited. The fee covers registration, after which is entitled to some degree of support and updates. For example, free and paid versions of apps.
When the software’s author has decided to retain the copyright. So although the software can be used without payment there are still restrictions in what the user can do, like add it to other software and selling it is not allowed.
Used to control functions of various hardware devices and systems. Controls device functions in the same way a computer’s operating systems controls the function of software applications. For example, cars telephones, toys, appliances, security systems and TV’s. The software is very simple, like how a camera processes a photo that’s just been taken.
2.6 Software troubleshooting
Types of documentation
System freeze, where the whole system locks and no key or click can release it, which may be as a result of a virus or software bugs.
The frozen blue screen of a windows-based system, which can be caused by issues with driver software (blue screen of death).
Software error or ‘bug’ due to poor coding or typing errors.
Updates - ironically these can occur because an upgrade has not been applied and so the software malfunctions because it has interfered with existing software
Usual behaviour, such as only half a document appearing in a word- processing program
Troubleshooting tools to investigate a problem.
Network monitors examine traffic between computers- for example, the types of data packets - for errors. The system not only identifies current issues but also provides a set of benchmarks once the system is set up and stable. These can regularly be compared with the actual state of a network at a particular time.
Virus scanners check whether malware is being run in the background and slowing down the system
Troubleshooting tools to investigate a problem
Installable tools, anti virus
Fault finding documentation:
Help desk logs updated up IT technicians including :
Machine, Owner / users, Date , Fault, symptoms
What the problem is, When it happened, How serious?,
What is the cause?, Event ID ,Who was logged into the machine
Unexpected software behaviour
2.4 Operating System
A processor is a logic circuitry that respond to and processes the basic instructions the drive a computer.
2 main users of processors in operating system:
Most systems use single processor systems
They perform only one process at a given time and it carries out the next process in the queue only after the current process is completed.
OS monitor the status of them and also sends them next executive instruction.
It relieved CPU of disk scheduling and other tasks.
It is suitable for general purpose computers, as it cannot run multiple processors in parallel.
Also known as a parallel or tightly coupled systems as they can run multiple processes in parallel to each other efficiently.
Two or more processors will be close communication with each other with shared memory, storage and power supply.
In these days rather than using multiprocessor system, people tend to buy single processor with multiple cores. This can be more efficient as internal on- chip communication between different processors.
Multi core processors also use less power than that of multiple single core processors.
Tasks the os performs:
Provides start up instructions (boot up/ BIOS)
Organising files/ folders
Managing data transfer from cpu to peripherals
Controls the following file operation: (copy, delete,
load, rename and save)
Deals with system usernames and passwords (security)
Handles input and output devices
Allocation of storage space
Allocates CPU time
The operating system is a part of the systems software.
The os is a program that allows applications software to communicate with the hardware.
Without an operating system, a computer is just a collection of components that can't do anything.
2.2 Application Software
Allows users to work and carry out tasks on their own computer systems
Productivity software is things such as:
Word processors/desktop publishing software word
Video editing software
Photo editing software
CAD (computer aided design) software is used by architects ,engineers,drafters,artists and others to create precision drawing or technical illustrations. CAD software can be used to create two dimensional (2-D) drawings or three dimensional (3-D)models.
Project Management software
Project management software is used for project planning,scheduling,resource allocation and change management.
allows stakeholders and users to control cost and manage budgeting, quality management and documentation and also may be used as an administration system.
A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in particular programming language and turns them into machine code that a computer's processors uses.
Runs the software
Language statements in a language such as python one line at a time using an editor.
Check the whole code
MIS (Management Information Systems)
The department controlling hardware and software systems used for business- critical decision- making within an business.
Finding the errors in the code, isolating it and fix it or find a way to go around it
Test the correction or work around to make sure it works.
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Can write code into software
Debugging build in
Html, notepad ++ ,
Intelligent Code completion
Provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.
Translate the code into an executable file that can be run by other systems
Goes from line to line
Transmission control protocol (TCP)
TCP identifies how ALL Data should be exchanged over the internet
How it should be broken into packets
How it should be routed
How it should be reconstructed
Definition -A standard set of rules
An agreed method of doing something
Each protocol is designed with a specific need in mind
Many protocols depends on each other.
Internet protocol (IP)
Uniquely identifies a physical computer linked to the internet
Both protocols work directly together to allow internet users and providers to communicate:
FTP(file transfer protocol)
Works alongside TCP/ IP
Set of rules that govern hardware and software setting when transferring files over the internet
UDP (user data protocol)
Similar to TCP but it's used for establishing low latency and connections which tolerate loss disordering of data packets
Low latency= minimal delay
SMTP (simple mail transfer protocol)
This protocol is responsible for sending emails
It moves email between servers
POP (post office protocol)
This protocol allows a user to receive a email from the server
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
Set of rules used on the world wide web
Allows web pages to be transferred to the computer which requests it.
SNMP( simple network management protocol)
Protocols which gathers statistics such as status on:
It also gathers data on any errors
ICMP ( internet control message protocol)
This protocol send messages on the condition of the network
This information would be extremely useful to a ICT network manager.