The Biological Approach : (Evaluation (Deterministic views behaviour as…
The Biological Approach :
Concordance rate between twins used to determine likelihood of genetic basis.
MZ (identical) twins share 100% DNA, while DZ (non-identical) twins share 50% DNA.
If MZ twins have higher concordance rates than DZs, this implies a genetic basis.
Whether behavioural characteristics, e.g. intelligence have genetic basis.
Genotype & phenotype
The genetic makeup of an individual.
The ways the genes are expressed.
E.g. Twins share 100& DNA but may still look different due to hair dyeing or other factors.
E.g. PKU is a genotype that causes severe learning difficulties, though if on strict diet, the phenotype will be normal intelligence.
Charles Darwin proposed theory of natural selection.
Genetically determined behaviour that enhance individual's survival will be passed on to next generation.
When a characteristic enhances survival, the individual is more advantageous to survive & reproduce to pass traits on.
Evidence for neural processes causing mental illnesses come from drugs reducing symptoms, though this is only association & not cause.
Deterministic views behaviour as being entirely caused by biological processes & not free will.
Contradicts the legal system (offenders seen as legally responsible for actions).
Has real-life applications, e.g. Psychoactive drugs in treating depression.
Nature & nurture can't be separated in twin studies as twins are usually reared in same environment.
Acts as confounding variable.
Uses precise & scientific methods to investigate, e.g. EEG, fMRIs, twin studies. Therefore objective & reliable data.
Reductionist as reduces behaviour down to genes & neurological processes.
Thoughts & behaviour can be explained by brain structure & functions.
All thoughts, feelings & behavior have physical basis.
Biological influenced by genetic & evolutionary factors.