The ideal audience would be instructional designers and educators, as well as writers or anyone planning to publish a written work. It is important to understand the brain's attention span and that it is not natural for a brain to be engaged with only one item when distractions are happening. It is important to consider the reader/user and if they are mentally disciplined to handle a deep reading. For example, you would not expect the brain of a 4-year-old to be fully engaged for a long period of time with out distractions, Therefore, as designers, we could include instruction that uses "distractions" as a part of the lesson so that the brain is still engaged. Is this why CBIs for these age groups are full of characters, icons, sounds and games- even within the single instruction? Can we use those "distractionas" as an advantage in developing and creating instruction?