Constructivist Theories and Concepts (Constructivism ("radical"…
Constructivist Theories and Concepts
is concerned with interpreting texts in ways that emphasize meaning and understanding, connect individuals and/or communities, and place knowledge within the context of history and/or culture (Crotty, 1998).
is the father of modern hermeneutics, which arose from methods of interpreting Scripture (Crotty, 1998)
the main characteristics of phenomenology include objectivity ("It is in the search of objects of experience rather than being content with a description of the experiencing subject") and critique ("It calls into question what we take for granted")(Crotty, 1998, p. 83).
contributed to "exponential" growth of this philosophy and phenomenology as a method (Crotty, 1998, p. 61).
"The focus is on an individual's ability to employ a large range of tools and methods, even unconventional ones, and therefore on his or her inventiveness, resourcefulness, and imaginativeness" (Crotty, 1998, p. 49).
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In
The Handbook of Qualitative Research
(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Levi-Strauss, C. (1966).
The savage mind.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Realist & Relativist:
"Social Constructionism is at once realist and relativist" (Crotty, 1998, p. 63).
"Subject and object, distinguishable as they are, are always united. It is this insight that is captured in the term 'intentionality'" (Crotty, 1998, p. 45).
Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are produced through socialization and social behavior
Constructivism ("radical" or "psychological")
-- "focuses... on the individual knower and acts of cognition... The central idea... is that human knwledge cannot consist in accurate representation or faithful copying of an external reality, that is of a reality that is nonphenomenal (existing apart from the knower's experiences)." (Schwandt, 2007, p. 38)
"the collective generation of meaning as shaped by the conventions of language and other social processes" (Schwandt, 1994, p. 127).
Peter Berger & Thomas Luckman (1966).
The social construction of reality.
New York: Doubleday.
Ernst von Glaserfeld
Cultural Constructivism asserts that knowledge and reality are a product of their cultural context, meaning that two independent cultures will likely form different observational methodologies.
--"we owe to society our very being as conscious and self-conscious entities, for that being arises from a process of symbolic interaction--interaction, that is to say, by way of significant gestures [e.g., language]" (Crotty, 1998, p. 74).
Triangulation- Not looking for a single truth but instead compiling different perspectives
Grounded Theory- Examining the data to try to extract a theory, which is discovery process rather than confirmation process. "Symbolic interactionalism has also spawned the research methodology known as
" (Crotty, 1998, p.78)*
-research methodology aimed at study people and cultures. "For ethnography, then, as for the symbolic interactionism that now commonly forms its matrix, the notion of taking the place of the other is central" (Crotty, 1998, p. 76).