Vaccination + Monoclonal Antibodies (Antigenic Variation + Herd Immunity…
Vaccination + Monoclonal Antibodies
If there's a colour change, it demonstrates that the antigen or antibody of interest is being tested.
In an ELISA test, an antibody is used that has an enzyme attached to it. This enzyme can react with a substrate to produce a coloured product. This causes the solution in the reaction vessel to change colour.
ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
A direct test uses a single antibody that is complementary to the antigen that you are testing for.
An indirect ELISA uses two different types of antibodies.
Pregnancy tests detect the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin. The application area contains antibodies that are complementary to the hCG protein, bound to a coloured bead, blue. When urine is applied to the application area the hCG will bind to the antibody on the beads forming an antigen-antibody complex. The urine moves up the stick to the test strip, carrying any beads with it. The strip contains antibodies to hCG that are immobilized. If hCG is present then the strip turns blue as the blue beads are attached to the antibodies.
Cancer cells have antigens called tumour markers. Monoclonal antibodies can be made that will bind to these tumour markers. You can attach anti-cancer drugs to the antibodies. The antibodies will bind to the tumour markers. This means that the drug will only accumulate where there are cancer cells, meaning that the effects of an antibody-based drug is off a low risk.
You can make monoclonal antibodies to bind to anything you want, and they will only bind to that one thing.
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by genetically identical plasma cells This means that they're all identical in structure.
Antigenic Variation + Herd Immunity
Testing vaccines on humans can be risky as volunteers can put themselves at risk as they think that they are protected from a certain virus.
If there was a new vaccination to an epidemic there would be a rush of people for the new vaccine, however, not everyone would be able to use it straight away.
Animal rights are involved in monoclonal antibody therapy and general vaccination.
Some people don't take the vaccination because of the side effects but are still protected by herd immunity. People think this is unfair.
When many people are vaccinated there is a low occurrence of disease.
Herd immunity is when so many people are vaccinated, that it is likely you won't catch the disease anyway.
Changes in the gene cause for the antigens, on the surface of a pathogen, to change.
The Influenza virus changes its antigens every year, forming new strands of the virus. Memory cells produced will not recognise other strands of the influenza virus. Every year a new strand of influenza virus is present, so a new vaccination has to be made.
Booster vaccinations are given to increase the number of memory cells, as they will have naturally decreased over time.
Genetically engineered: DNA injected that allows the body to produce antibodies, towards a certain antigen.
Polysaccharides: Make up the antigens on a pathogen. It is an inactivated unit.
Toxoids: Contains the toxin that is released by a pathogen.
Inactivated: Contains pathogens or virus particles that have been killed.
Live: Uses the weakened version of the pathogen.