J276/01 - Section 3 - Issues (Ethical and cultural Issues (Internet…
J276/01 - Section 3 - Issues
The Data Protection Act 1998
gives rights to data subjects. The Act has eight principles.
The exceptions to data subjects having the right to see personal data an organisation holds about them are for example, if it could affect national security, tax assessment or the outcome of a court case.
1) Data must only be used in a fair and lawful way.
2) Data must only be used for the specified purpose.
3) Data should be adequate, relevant and not excessive for the specified use.
4) Data must be accurate and kept up to date.
5) Data should not be kept longer than necessary.
6) The rights of the data subject must be observed.
7) Data should be kept safe and secure.
8) Data should not be transferred abroad without adequate protection.
The Freedom Of Information Act 2000
allows members of the public to access information held a public organisation about that organisation’s activities. The Act covers information stored in computer data files, emails, and printed documents.
The Act makes public organisations publish certain information on a trilateral basis so that the public have access to it. It also allows members of the public to request specific information.
There are some exceptions to the Act. E.g. an organisation can withhold requested information if it is intended for future publication, or if disclosing it could affect national security or cause people harm.
The Computer Misuse Act 1990
was introduced to stop hacking and cyber crime. It introduced three new offences...
1) Gaining unauthorised access to a private network or device, e.g. through hacking.
2) Gaining unauthorised access to a network or device in order to commit a crime, like stealing data or drestroying the network.
3) Unauthorised modification of computer material - e.g. deleting or changing files. The Act also makes it illegal to make, supply or obtain malware.
The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
was introduced to protect intellectual property - anything someone has created, e.g. a novel, a song, piece of software, a new invention.
The Act makes it illegal to share copyrighted files without the copyright holder’a permission, use unlicensed software or plagiarise somebody else’s work. Copyright holders can make money by granting permission to use the katerial for a fee.
Creative Commons (CC)
licenses allow you to legally share media and software online without having to ask for permission first. Intellectual property owners use Creative Commons licenses when they want other people to build upon their work.
There are four main types of Creative Commons license
- work can be shared, copied or modified, but the copyright holder has to be credited.
- modified works can only be distributed with the same license terms as the original.
- nobody can use the copyrighted work for profit.
No derivative works
- the work can be copied and distributed, but can’t be modified or built upon.
Ethical and cultural Issues
Social media websites actively encourage you to post even more personal information, including potgralhs and details of your job and social life.
Cloud computing websites allow users to upload personal files to their servers.
Users will accept a private agreement before using many websites and software. The trouble is that very few people actually read these so are unaware of what they’re agreeing to. Even if they do read the terms, users often have no choice but to agree if they want to use the website or software at all.
Internet censorship is when someone tries to control what other people can access on the Internet. Some countries’ governments use censorship to restrict access to certain information.
Many governments use some form of censorship. Many countries restrict access to pornography, gambling and other inappropriate websites in order to protect children.
Computer surveillance is when someone monitors what other people are accessing on the Internet.
Many countries use some form of surveillance. Government intelligence agencies may use packet sniffers and other software to monitor internet traffic, looking out for key words or phrases that might alert them to illegal activities, terrorism, etc. In some countries ISPs keep records of all websites visited by all its customers for a certain amount of time.
Technology has increased peer pressure - children feel pressured to own the latest device for fear of being bullied which then pressures parents into buying them.
Employees may be expected to carry a smartphone all the time, so they can always be contacted - the smartphone may beep each time they get a work e-mail. This can be stressful for employees who feel they can never really switch off from work.
Cyber bullying is when somebody uses social media to deliberately harm someone else. This includes trying to intimidate or insult someone, or trying to humiliate or defame them.
Trolling is when somebody tries to cause public arguments with others online. Trolls normally do this for their own amusement or to gain attention.
The Internet has made it easier for children to access inappropriate material, like pornography, drugs and gambling. Parents and schools can use parental-control software to try to stop children seeing it.
Eye strain can be caused by looking at a device’s screen for too long. It can be prevented by using suitable lighting, keeping the screen a good distance away from your eyes and taking regular breaks.
Repetitive Strain Injury is when parts of your body become damaged as a result of repeated movements over a long period of time, such as typing. It can be prevented by having a correct posture, arranging your desk appropriately and taking regalia breaks.
Sitting at a computer can chase back problems. Back pains are normally due to a poor posture, so you can prevent them by using an adjustable chair, for rest and adjustable monitor to ensure you aren’t sitting at an awkward angle.
Ethical and Cultural Issues continued
Selfies have become really popular and they could be a sign that social media is gradually making people more attention-seeking and self-obsessed.
Viral is a word used to describe videos, images or messages on the Internet which have realidly spread over social media and have been seen by millions of people.
Social media and blogging websites allow people to publish writing, art or other media. This can give a voice to groups of people who might have been ignored by mainstream media.
Music and television streaming services have allowed their customers to listen and watch media for less media, usually through a subscription service.
The sharing economy is the name given to services which use new technology to let people make money from things they already own such as Uber.
The digital divide is created by the fact that some people have greater access to technology than others.
Causes of the digital divide
Some people don’t have enough lines go buy new devices like smartphones and laptops, which can be very expensive.
Urban areas are likely to have greater network coverage than rural areas.
Some people don’t know how to use the Internet and other new technologies, and so are shut out of the opportunities they offer. This is a problem for many older people who haven’t grown up with computers and so have little experience with them.
Electronic devices contain lots of raw materials. Plastics which are used for casing and other parts, come from crude oil. Devices also contain many precious materials like hold, silver, copper etc. Extracting these materials used lots of energy, creates pollution and depleted scarce natural resources.
Most electricity is made using non renewable resources like coal, oil and gas. Extracting these and producing electricity in power stations causes lots of pollution including greenhouse gases.
All computers generate heat and requires cooling. The powerful servers used by businesses and the Internet are a particular problem. They’re very power hungry and require special air-conditioned rooms to keep them cool. That means using even more energy and pollution.
Devices waste a lot of energy. Servers nrkammly only use a small proportion of their processing power. People often leave their desktops, laptops and smartphones idle. This means devices are using a lot of energy without actually doing anything.
Ways to reduced the amount of energy wasted by devices
Virtual servers are software based servers rather than real machines. Multiple virtual servers can run on one physical server, so the physical server can run at full capacity.
Most modern devices include sleep and hibernation modes to reduced their power consumption when they are idle.
Don’t leave electronic devices on standby.
The world creates 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste every year. Modern devices have a very short life before they’re discarded - either because hey break or because people want to upgrade.
Open Source and Proprietary Software
Open Source software is given away with its Source Code
Linux is a hugely successful open source OS. This is what Android use.
Popular open-source software is always supported by a strong online community.
Open source software is software where the source code is made freely available. Users may legally modify the source code.
Popular software is very reliable and secure.
Made for the greater good, not profit.
Wide pool of collaborators can be more creative and
Software can be adapted by users to fit their needs
Small projects may not get regular updates...
Could be buggy
Have unpatched security holes.
There may be limited user documentation.
No warranties if something goes wrong.
No customer support
Proprietary Software is Closed Source Software
Proprietary software tends to have better customer support options. Businesses use these.
Proprietary software licenses restrict the modification, It’s usually paid for.
Software may not exactly fit a user’s needs, and cant do out about it.
Software companies want people to buy their latest product so don't maintain older software..
Can be expensive.
Proprietary software is software that is a secret.
Comes with warranties, documentation,
and customer support
Should be well-tested and reliable.
Usually cheaper for companies than
developing their own custom-built software.
Open Source Vs Proprietary Software
GDPR - General Data Protection Regulation