Topic 1 (1.4 Connectivity methods (Bluetooth (Bluetooth is a wireless…
1.4 Connectivity methods
Bluetooth is a wireless technology for exchanging data over short distances. It can be used in computers, mobile phones and other similar technologies that allows data transfer. Using a special radio frequency to transfer data, it creates a short range network. it is very secure and can connect up to eight devices at the same time.
Wifi is a way of getting broadband internet without wires
Wifi allows you to connect to multiple devices at the same time to the internet. It uses radio waves, just like tv or mobile phones . you may sometimes hear this zone referred to as a wlan(wireless local area network)
Wired is more secure
Uses short radio waves send signals via microwave towers.
Can provide analogue or digital forms
Made with glass that becomes very flexible when it is thin. Light is passed through the cable using a transmitter. Light travels quickly through the light- reflecting internal wall of the cable.
Infrared wireless is the use of wireless technology in devices or systems that convey data through infrared radiation. It is electromagnetic radiation.
The transmitter is the device sends light pulses representing binary code, which is picked up by a receiver.
When the data is received, it is decoded back to its binary form and the computer displays the message.
Coaxial degenerates over long distances. Untwisted pair regeneration is less. Shielded twisted pair uses copper shield around it. Less susceptible to interference. 3 types pass data between networks
Sending large quantities of data using a light beam to devices in the line of sight. Also satellite to satellite communication.
Satphones connect to orbiting satellites, not cellular networks.there popular for voice calling in remote locations
Communication satellites can also provide data services such as GPS and internet access.
Near Field Technologies (NFT)
Nfc is a set of standards for portable devices . it allows them to establish a radio communication, passing data from one device to another by touching them or putting them close together. It's
devices.(it doesn't require a field, though)
1.7 Units of measurements
Computers all use one language to store information. Speak in 1’s and 0’s. These are called bits (binary digits bits). Can be combined together to make pictures, images, sound, ect
Binary is a number system that only uses two digits:
1 and 0. All data we want a computer to process needs to be converted into binary. Base two system as there only two numbers to select.
So why 0’s & 1’s / On or Off
Computers use millions of electronic circuits and switches which can be either ON or OFF. ON is represented in 1’s. OFF is represented in 0’s
Bit, nibble & byte
Each 1 or 0 is called a bit. 8 bits together make up a byte. A nibble is 4 bits.
When describing Hard Disk Space we are use to using the following:
Megabyte, Gigabyte & Terabyte
Decimal/Metric units vs Binary units
When computer memory was only a few thousand kilobytes, computer scientists and engineers noticed that there was only 24 bytes of difference from the decimal thousand, so they started to use the decimal unit.
1.3 Types of computer systems
Wireless communication via software e.g. email, messaging, and access to internet. Small, lightweight and not too expensive. Can have a small screen and keyboards depending on the version. Normally have USB ports, but not optical drives.
Large storage space, large display. Extremely good graphics depending on the graphics card and RAM. Ergonomically designed keyboards and mouse, fit perfectly for any user.
Portable, small and lightweight. Contains software for an address book, note-making. Telephone and internet facilities. Data can be exchanged with computer, can link with other computers.
Computer within another device. Single chip that contains all of the elements that are essential for any computer, examples are RAM, ROM, CPU, Input, Output and Clock.
Large, powerful computers. Fast, can process billions of instructions per second. Used by large companies. Often connected to a lot of peripherals. Different sizes, the bigger the more components and more useful for a larger company.
In 2016, the development of these is still in its infancy. Much more powerful than regular computers. Can perform calculations much quicker. Large commercial organisations would use them for research and modelling. Generate so much heat that they need to be kept in specially designed rooms.
1.2 Computer Components
A motherboard is a circuit board containing components of a computer for a device . They can be linked to other motherboards as well. A motherboard that allows the CPU, RAM, Hardware and all other computer hardware components to communicate with each other. location is at the back of the computer
Computer data, memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data. Primary storage also know as RAM (Random Access Memory) this is data that is completely accessible from the cpu. All computers have a ram which is like a memory for the computer. It is located on the motherboard.this is non volatile.
A processor is the place where operations are controlled and executed. The processor executes commands for the used by fetching code ,decode it then executing the code. It receives binary and translates it into a operator and an operand.
A processor can be found in every computer device because without it the device won't do what the user wants it to do.
A device that can be handheld able to store information permanently or temporarily depending on the type of the device. For memory there a different amounts of memory for each computer. This links to storage as data is stored in ram and hard drives.
A port is the end of a line of communication in an operating system. All computers has ports to be able to put in a usb to transfer data from one computer to another. Ports are also needed to charge laptops or to transfer the display of a computer to a tv. They can also be used to add a firewall to the computer.
1.5 Communication hardware
Hardware that connects computers together by port, depending on the number of ports depends on the amount of computers that can be connected. Searches and gains data packets that are sent to every other port.
Very similar to a hub, except for its designed to remove data collisions by connecting computers directly and sends packets to the right user.
A device that transfers data from one network to another. The router transfers the data packets the simplest and quickest route. Its able to do all of this because of the computer built inside of it, the computer holds the routing table that contains a list of all networks and has the latest information of on the roots for the packets to take.
A device that allows a computer to send and receive data by telephone line, cable or satellite, telephone being the most popular way of accessing the internet. The modern modems convert data between analog and digital formats.
WAP (wireless access Point)
Sets of communication protocols to allows wireless devices to use the internet, e-mail, the web, news and media.
1.6 Hardware troubleshooting
Faults come from power surges, accidental damage, poor maintenance, intentional damage and malware. When faults occur they must reported to technicians, they will log the fault to identify the machine, owners/users, fault, date, symptoms, problem history and back up.
Causes Of Faults
Power surges are caused by bad wiring . Poor maintenance.Malware .Intentional damage
Common problems-The IT support department of antivirus company. MySecurityCenter conducts research on the most common errors that happens on british computers
Subnet and ip calculation
1.9 Number conversion
1.1 Computer Hardware
A device with allows the user to control the cursor on the screen, a real life example is any user trying to access software and data.
A device which allow the user to type numbers, letters and symbols, a real life example would typing up a business report.
A device with allows the user ingame material, a real life example is being used on consoles for the made games.
A device normally attached to printers, which scans objects that placed on top of them, a common example is when scanning paperwork in a business.
A device that takes sounds in, an example is when communicating with someone online.
A device that outputs sound, a real life example are users listening to music on the radio.
A device that outputs documents on paper, an example would be in businesses that print out paperwork.
A device that outputs a screen that can allow the user to see their software and data, a real life use would be every user using computer and laptop in workplaces.
A device similar to the printer but uses pen instead of ink. You mostly would find them in newspaper companies.
A device that output essentially the same screen as the monitor but on a larger scale. This would be commonly be used in classrooms or at businesses for presentations.
Allows a computer within a telephone able to communicate with other computers, this includes contacts and businesses.
NIC(Network Interface Card)
Allows the computer to connect to the home network or the internet using an Ethernet cable.
A common device that is used by almost everyone around the world, which allows the user to access many applications using the internet.
Describes how devices such as mobile phones and computers communicate with each other.
This includes remotes, connecting via light receptors instead of using wires.
1.8 Number Systems
This is the number system you have known for your entire lives.
10 base system
This is commonly used in computer programming as its quicker to type than the binary equivalent. 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F