Availability: food must be physically available. This depends on food production, stock levels in shops, trade and aid.
Access: people must have the physical and economic means to get food. This is controlled by personal income, food prices and access to land to grow food or shops to buy it in.
Utilisation: the individual must be able to make the most of the nutrients in the food they eat. This will depend on physiological considerations, general health, feeding practices (taboos on eating certain foods), food distribution in the family, food preparation and diversity of the diet.
Stability: food must be available, accessible and usable at all times. Stability is threatened by global climate change and the extreme weather events it brings, political instability, unemployment, rising prices and loss of land.