The fundamentals of organising (Grouping jobs: Departmentalisation (The…
The fundamentals of organising
When designing jobs the level of specialisation or the degree to which the overall task of the organisation is to be broken into smaller, more specialised tasks, need to be determined.
the determination of an employee’s work-related responsibilities.
Job specialisation provides benefits as well as limitations to organisations
Job enrichment involves increasing both the number of tasks the worker does and the control the worker has over the job. More authority is delegated to the employee and work is structured in complete units.
Work teams allow an entire group to design the work system it will use to perform an interrelated set of tasks
Job enlargement was developed to increase the total number of tasks that a worker performs
Job rotation involves systematically moving employees from one job to another. Jobs do not change, but instead workers move from job to job.
Grouping jobs: Departmentalisation
The various departments created constitute the organisational structure of the business as they appear on the organisational chart
The reasons for departmentalisation are in the advantages of specialisation.
Some common bases for departmentalisation include the following
The matrix organisational structure.
Establishing reporting relationships
Determine who reports to whom. This is called the chain of command.
The chain of command has two components: The unity of command and the scalar principle.
Unity of command suggests that each person within an organisation must have one clear reporting relationship to one, and only one supervisor
The scalar principle suggests that that there must be clear unbroken line of authority that extends from the lowest to the highest person in the organisation.
The second step in establishing reporting lines is to determine how many people will report to one manager(Span of management/span of control)
A narrow span of management will result in relatively tall organisational structure, which may mean managers are being underutilised and there is excessive control of subordinates
A wide span of management will result in a flat organisational structure, in which it may be difficult to co-ordinate and control the tasks of a large number of subordinates.
Establishing authority relationships
The broad functions of the business are broken up into smaller specialised units that are allocated to certain departments and persons
Formal authority is accepted by subordinates.
Authority is the right to command or give orders.
Formal authority flows down the vertical hierarchy of an organisation.
Responsibility can be defined as the duty to perform the task or activity assigned
An important distinction is between line authority and staff authority
Formal authority is vested in organisational positions, not people.
Line authority is authority delegated down through the line of command.