Globalization: Its implications for Knowledge and Education By: Evan West
Globalization: Its implications for Knowledge and Education By: Evan West
Knowledge Under Globalization
People learn of events quicker
Can travel distant places with ease
Increases interaction among people, creates opportunities for new learning and old learning
New Learning is a "cult of Technology"
Priority of Science, tech, engineering, and math diminishes percieved
Devalue of humanities and social sciences. Focus on education for jobs and wearing broader notion of education of Life. Weaker connection to market, harder to vilify its education and job market
Tech main Motor in globalization
Can be used to improve school learning
Speed of circulation of knowledge, growth in quantity, quality, and density of knowledge that embodies design, production, and marketing of even ordinary products
Culture and politics have influence on knowledge
Huge Expansion of university and other institutions
Mostly Private education growth
Explosion in International Students
180,000 Chinese students went overseas in 2007
4.1 million or more higher education students attended college outside their country in 2010.
Those with higher education earned 58% more than their counterparts.
Access remains affected by social class.
Tech, invention is heavily relied apron for globalization. Research and Development always needed.
Some companies research themselves, less demand on Universities.
Students more linked to market than pursuit of truth
Companies will be powerful donors, contractual industrial clients
Place emphasis on market orientation and client satisfaction
Professors struggle to secure funds for research, focus less on public sector.
Teaching quality Assessment programs appraise faculty performance, reduce performance to a few indicators
Universities compete with each other, focus lesson on non-income producing aspects. Eval playroom, but marketability lead to distortion
Elite universities crop up, highly competitive admissions
Privatization of higher education offers more advantage for competitive national economy
Reduce national financial burden
With Demand for free exchange of product, less revenue for state
Privitization heightens social class differences and make education an individual right rather than collective right
Globalization less inclined to protect equality, and need to create workers to join globalized and increasingly tech society.
World Bank and OECD
Gained Prominence in ed
World bank "Knowledge Bank"
Expanded through strategies, including its recent education sector strategy
Asserts itself in seventy countries for international student assessment program
Assess achievement in math, science and reading
The Sad Truth
With Globalization of labor, TNC's follow cheapest bidder internationally. Skills of labor force is important, but lower level of schooling is sufficient in most cases
retention of Educated students is hard in Developing countries. the places that need it the most can't keep their students
Counterparts in other countries earn far more than in developing countries for same job.
Monopolies Run the World. Can we educate and weaken them?
Globalization has not increased wages except in US. Wealth highly clustered while growth was tremendous. New and wealthy class is technological aristocracy and business executives. They want only corporate share prices to rise.
Economic growth no longer alleviates poverty or employment rates
Education remains focused on production labor force
Public education are being attacked. Neoliberalism extends its economic features with deeper links between market and capital and between school and the labor force.
Some Repercussions of Globalization in Ed
Crieria employed in firms for efficiency and productivity being extended into schools
Focus shifted from child centred curriculum to work preparation skills
Education losing ground as public good to becomes simply another marketable commodity.
Teacher's autonomy/independence and control over their work reduced. Workplace under power of admin.
Private education new trend. Offers more flexible training, which means less history, math, sciences.
Pedagogies less linked to market reduced. No more critical theory as opposed to instrumental problem solving tasks
Equality and equity concerning women are losing ground to consideration of issues in efficiency
Need to gain knowledge to compete on global scale
Transnational Cultural Space, Sense of Belonging and Education
International Baccalaureate program ad higher education are producing shift in character of the students produced
More children influenced by media and testing regimes
Children more knowledgeable about world.
Can be a clash between global orientation and clash for national cohesion when educating children, such as in Japan
Localy, increased presence of business in cooperation with schools
Determine what constitutes quality and what is needed in work force
Access to education depends still on social Class
Poor have fewer chances
Contraditions on its own labor force
Need knowledge to compete on a global scale
those who benefit from new reality by virtue of their mastery of tech, transfer menial forms of services to other workers.
House cleaning, laundry, childcare, food prep, gardening all transferred
A knowledge society rely's on individuals to have low enough knowledge to be willing to accept menial tasks, or that they cannot afford not to the the jobs.
If not enough workers, migration will supply the rest
"Brain Drain" phenomenon
Those smart enough to fill out migration paperwork, move for better jobs. Globalization welcomes them less for higher levels of eduction, than for willingness to take lower skill jobs. Doctors working as house maids.
Greater differentiation, lower qualifications get into less selective or second tier private institutions
Profitability at forefront, social and public service interests devalued.
Indisputable way to increased social mobility and works in global imagery as key economic competitiveness of countries
Appropriate knowledge becomes increasingly narrowly defined
Higher Education growing from demands of individuals
Effects all areas of social life
English as the Global Language
Rapidly integrated into economic space
International trade increase
Reconversion of dependency, It hides the effects of economic policies that are creating major psocial problems
Where is all the power?
Transnational corporations (TNC's)
43,000 Large firms
70% world trade controlled by 500 largest industrial firms
Created global factories, rely on cheapest combination of labor/skills
Trade faster through technology/international financial institutions
larger institutions less publicly accountable, such as tnc's, banks, media conglomerates
corporate state now mediates transnational market relations in education
4 Components a country must have
Political capacity of national supranational institutions to guide growth strategy
Profitable difference between production cost and prices at the market of destination
4 more items...
Access to large integrated affluent market
Technological capacity of a country
Creates competitiveness in global market
Product MUST BE
Socialist economies demise, reliance and great promise placed on role of the market to release creative energies and minimize inefficiencies
Knowledge is not available to everyone
Growing influence of international monetary fund and world bank
World institutions that are needed for creation of new international economic order are being smothered.
Structural adjustment programs and poverty reduction strategy papers, capital accumulation continues while negatively impacting the process of distribution of the social product
Internationalization of commodity culture
Networked Global Telecommunication system
It changes the economy
Changes the labor force
Affects Financial Markets
People are watching occupy movement, Arab Spring for push back or limit the neoliberal agenda, limiting the economy's strong hand n shaping life chances.
Can lead towards homogeneity of values and norms
Opportunity to rescue or reinvent local identity
Communication tech accelerating cultural change
Transport advances decrease cost, fostering exposure to other ways of life
Mass media causing English to be GLOBAL Language
Adoption of the "American Way of Life"
Old views and identity forced to present time norms
Global oppressive and erode cultural traditions and identity
Struggle to identify old identity, recapture traditions and values, fighting effects of globalization
Some find a need to be flexible and adjust economically and adapt innovations into production of goods and services.
Labor practices and work organization very "Post-Fordist" production line.
In Developed Countries
Offer reward system to seniority if they cooperate with firm
In Developing Countries
Create labor as expendable and exchangeable.
Mostly part time employment
Production changed values and norms attached to the the way production is organized
Gender under Globalization
Mass media, social media help with new idea regarding gender equity, and heighten messages that reproduce gender asymmetries
More incorporated into labor market
Downside: Japan women massively enter labor force in early 20's, stop working after marriage to raise children. More cost effective to stay at home than bring in 2 salaries.
Downside: US Tax code penalizes two income families
Armies, bureaucracies, stock market previously served to export norms of violence, aggression, domination of masculine
Globally: 50% immigrant women end up low wage jobs, low status, segregated jobs.
More prone to violence, reduced access to property, sexual rights and reproductive rights are now a social concern.
Cause people to seek increased access to secondary education, but Globalization reduces wanting to train teachers in gender issue.
Fighting it is possible?
Local groups can reshape their identity and adapt their processes, and don't have to abandon to become globally oriented.