ethnic minorities difference in achievement (internal)
ethnic minorities difference in achievement (internal)
Labelling and teacher racism
Teacher labelling is where they attach a meaning or definition to a child. interactionists focus on the different labels teachers give to children from different ethnic backgrounds. teachers often see black and Asian children as being far from the ideal pupil so teachers give them negative labels.
Black pupils and discipline -
Gillborn and Youdell found that teachers were quick to discipline black children because they see their behaviour as threatening or challenging authority. when teachers do this it causes conflict. this could explain why there is high exclusion from black boys.
Black pupils and streaming -
Gillborn and Youdell found that in the A-to-C economy, teachers focus on those students who they believe are most likely to achieve a grade C at GCSE a process the authors call educational triage or sorting. as a result negative stereotypes about black pupils ability. Peter Foster found that this results in them being placed in lower sets.
The ideal pupil identity - A white working class, masculinised identity, normal sexuality. the pupil is seen as achieving in the right way.
The pathologised pupil identity - An Asian, feminised identity, a asexual identity or oppressed sexuality. seen as a overachiever, who succeeds through hard work and not natural ability.
The demonised pupil identity - A black or white working-class, hyper-sexualised identity, under achiever.
Pupil responses and subcultures
Fuller and Mac an Ghaill: rejecting negative labels - Studied a group of black girls in year 11. the girls were high achievers which was untypical because most were placed in low streams. they describe them as rejecting the negative labels and channel their anger into the educational success, but they do not seek teachers praise.
Mirza: failed strategies for avoiding racism - they found that racist teachers discourage black pupils by advising them about the types of careers.
teacher who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged.
The liberal chauvinists -
Teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived and who are low expectations of them.
The overt racists -
Teachers who believe blacks are inferior actively discriminate against them.
Swell: the variety of boys' responses - he says that their are many different responses.
The rebels -
Small minority of black pupils. who are often expelled from school. they reject the goals and rules of school. they are anti-school and relay of peer groups.
The conformists -
The largest group were keen to succeed and anxious to avoid stereotypes.
The retreatists -
is a tiny minority group of isolated individuals who are disconnected from both school and black subcultures, despised by the rebels.
The innovators -
the second largest group. they are pro-education but anti-school. they valued success but did not seek approval by teachers. were friends with the rebels.
Critical race theory
See racism as an ingrained feature of society. this means tat it involves not just the intentional actions of individuals, but more importantly, instituaional racism
Locked-in inequality - this means that people are still racist but they are not allowed to speak their feelings because of laws. Gillborn says its so deep rooted and so large that it is a practically inevitable features of the educational system.
Access to opportunities
The Gifted and Talented programme -
Was created with the aim of meeting the needs of more able pupils in inner-city schools.
Exam tiers -
Aiming high initiative to raise black Caribbean pupils achievement, blacks were nevertheless placed into lower tier GCSE's because they were placed in lower streams.
Marketisation and segregation
Gillborn says that marketation gives school more scope to select pupils, this allows negative stereotypes to influence decisions about school admissions. meaning schools high on the league tales don't pick them because they think they will fail. also ethnic minority parent are unaware of deadlines and waiting lists, their English may not be good when filling out application forms. racist bias in interviews for school places.
The ethnocentric curriculum
The ethnocentric curriculum reflects the culture of one ethnic group usually dominant culture. Some prime examples Languages, literature and music. the national curriculum is British meaning non European languages are ignored. History the national curriculum ignores ethnic diversity.
Baseline assessment which tested pupils when they started compulsory schooling but these were replaced in 2003 by a new way of measuring pupils abilities, the foundation stage profile. this ment that over night black pupils now appeared to be doing worse than white pupils.
Baseline assessment were done at the start of primary schools and were written tests, whereas Foundation stage profile were based entirely judgments and were done at the end of reception year.
The New IQism -
Access to opportunities such as higher sets or the gifted and talented programme depend heavily on teachers. Assessments work against black students. Teacher place students in sets based on their ability, attitudes, attainment and disciplinary concerns. Teachers see their potential as a fixed quality that can be easily measured but once a pupil has been measured, they can be put into the right stream. Gillbn says that all test do is measure what a person has learnt so far and not their potential.