1.2.3 Internet principles of operation (Cookies (A packet of information…
1.2.3 Internet principles of operation
the internet is a world-wide system of computer networks and computers.
All computers attached to the internet can communicate with each other providing a number of rules and protocols are followed
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
is a company that provides the user with internet
A monthly fee is usually charged for this service. The ISP will set up a user account which will contain a username and a password; some ISPs also give the user an email address.
internet protocol (IP) adress
A 32-bit number which is usually written in the form: 18.104.22.168
A home computer is given an IP address when it connects to the internet. This is assigned by the ISP and is unique for that particular internet session. The only IP addresses that remain fairly unchanged are web servers.
• An IP address can be used instead of typing in the full URL. For example:
would take you straight to the device corresponding to this address.
Media Access Control (MAC) Address
a unique number that identifies a device to the internet
Difference between MAC address and IP address
the IP address gives the location of a device where as the MAC address identifies the device connected to the internet
Internal/External IP address
HTML - structure and presentation
STRUCTURE is the essential part of the HTML document; it includes the semantics (meaning) and structural mark-up of the document
PRESENTATION is the style of the document; i.e. how the document will look (or even sound if it includes multimedia elements).
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protoco
HTTPS - Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure
When some form of security is used, then this changes to https (you also often see the padlock sign in the status bar). The letter s after http refers to http over secure.
It is slower to use https than http; https is usually only adopted where sensitive or private data is being transferred across the internet.
• Software which allows a user to display a web page on their computer screen. Web browsers interpret or translate the HTML code from websites and show the result of the translation. This can often be in the form of videos, images or sound.
Most Web browsers share the following features
Have a HOME page
The are able to store a users favourite websites/pages
they keep a history
they can go backwards and forwards to websites opened
the Web browser translates the web server name into an IP address which is part of the URL. the HTML code is returned and shown as a correctly formatted page on the computer screen
It is also possible that cookies may be sent from the web browser to the web server when the code excecuted
A packet of information sent by a web server to a web browser
Generated each time the user visits the website
Collect some key information about the user each time they visit a page. They are able to carry out user tracking and maintain user profile
The information gathered by cookies creates an
anonymous user profile
and doesn't contain personal information
Cookies are not programs but are simply pieces of data