Unit 3 Key terms
Unit 3 Key terms
Hydrophilic - Having an affinity for water.
Sickle cell disease - Individuals who are homozygous for the gene controlling hemoglobin S. The disease is characterized by the destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium.
Erythrocytes - Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood.
Leukocytes - Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin, contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
Thrombocytes - A minute colorless anucleate disklike body of mammalian blood that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium.
Anemia - A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.
Mutated - undergo or cause to undergo change in a gene or genes.
Hemoglobin - A test that measures the level of hemoglobin A1c in the blood as a means of determining the average blood sugar concentrations for the preceding two to three months.
Nucleotides - The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
protein synthesis - The creation of a protein from a DNA template.
Transcription - The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
Translation - The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids.
messenger RNA - A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA and attached to ribosomes in the cytoplasm; it specifies the primary structure of a protein.
amino acids - An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins.
tRNA - An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
Codon - A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
RNA - A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Ribosome - A cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules and is formed by combining two subunits.
Hematocrit - The percent of the volume of whole blood that is composed of red blood cells as determined by separation of red blood cells from the plasma usually by centrifugation.
Hydrophobic - Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
Mutation - A rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
genetic material - Molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms
Chromosomes - Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
Mitosis - A process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves a series of steps, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
Meiosis - The cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell.
homologous chromosomes - Chromosomes having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order.
Gene - A discrete unit of hereditary information
Hereditary - The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant.
Allele - Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
Genotype - All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
Phenotype - The physical and physiological traits of an organism that are determined by its genetic makeup.
Dominant - A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait
Recessive - A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
Autosomal - A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome.
Karyotype - A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Pedigrees - A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
Punnett square - A simple graphical way of discovering all of the potential combinations of genotypes of an offspring, given the parents’ genotypes.