Critiques of the mental asylums (Goffman- compares with prison/ religious…
Critiques of the mental asylums
Goffman- compares with prison/ religious institution
Loss of all virtues from outside world (prison)
Stripped of all your belongings (religious institution) so loss of identity kit, personal disfigurement.
Ward system- good and bad behaviour affected your treatment in the asylum
Rosenhan- being sane in insane places. Once labelled as schizophrenic it was very difficult to get out of that label. Psychiatrists more likely to label a healthy person as sick rather than the other way around.
Rosenham- the hierarchical structure in the asylum facilitates depersonalization.
DSM-I (1952) schizophrenia defined as "emotional disharmony. DSM-II (1968) "group of disorder manifested by disturbances in thinking, mood and behaviour
Beam- DSM critique- under DSM-III both the CLintons could have been institituionalized.
Critiques on the left- anti-establishment
Critiques on the right- Szasz- myth of mental illness
Mental illness is real in the same way that witches were real
Notion of mental illness is only to obscure the fact that for most people life is an everyday struggle
Mental illness is regarded as the cause for human disharmony
Staub- szasz outraged at the fact that the mental hospital functioned as an extra-legal system of social control. Szasz outrage echoed the wider feeling from american society.
Dain- szasz said mental illness is largely a product of psychiatric professions self interest
Social policy- De-institutionalization- 1955 peak inmates, and this drops 75% by 1980.
1946 National mental health act- created the national institution for mental health
Community mental health act 1963- shift of funding from state asylums to community centres
So a change in the place of treatment