Unit 7 Memory Storage and Retrieval
Unit 7 Memory Storage and Retrieval
anterograde amnesia- an inability to form new memories
retrograde amnesia- an inability to retrieve information from one's past
proactive interference- the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference- the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
repression- in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
misinformation effect- incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia- attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
deju vu- that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before."
cognition- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
concept- a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
prototype- a mental image or best example of a category
creativity- the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
convergent thinking- narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution
divergent thinking- expands the number of possible problem solutions
heuristic- simple thinking strategy that allows us to make judgement and solve problems efficiently
representatives heuristic- judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match prototypes
availability heuristic- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memeory
algorithm- rule that guarantees the speedy solving of a problem involves logic
insight- a sudden realization of a problems solution
MENTAL SET- tendency to approach a problem in one particular way
babbling stage- starts at 4 months, infant utters various, incoherent sounds
one-word stage- age 1-2 child speaks in single words
two-word stage- age 2 child speaks in two word statements
telegraphic speech- child speaks phrases like "go car"
phoneme- smallest distinctive sound
morpheme- smallest unit of sound that carries meaning
grammar- system of rules that allows communication
aphasia- imparemant of language
parts of brain
Broca's Area- language expression
Wernickes Area- language reception
Studying and Building Memories
the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.
the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning.
the process of retaining encoded information over time.
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare."
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
retention independent of conscious recollection.
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant memory or event
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
serial position effect
the tendency to recall information that is presented first and last (like in a list) better than information presented in the middle.