Late modern perspectives on the family (Ulrich Beck: The ‘Risk Society’…
Late modern perspectives on the family
people have more choice in terms of their relationships and family arrangements, but do not believe that people are as free as postmodernists suggest.
Underlying patterns, and shared experiences of relationships that are a consequence of our living in a ‘late-modern’ society – rather than families just being diverse and random.
Gender equality means that both partners have to work and spend longer building their careers, which means the average person has less time to spend making a relationship work
Ulrich Beck also argues that fewer people getting married is because of an increase in ‘risk consciousness’ – people see that nearly half of all marriages end in divorce and so they are less willing to take the risk and get married.
People are ‘reflexive’ – they look at society, see the risk of marriage, and then choose not to get married – their personal decisions are informed by what they see going in society.
Beck also talks of individualisation – a new social norm is that our individual desires are more important than social commitments, and this makes marriage less likely.
typical relationship today is the Pure Relationship – one which lasts only as long as both partners are happy with it, not because of tradition or a sense of commitment.
This makes cohabitation and serial monogamy rather than the long term commitment of a marriage more likely.
Anthony Giddens: Choice and Equality
Giddens argues that in recent decades the family and marriage have been transformed by greater choice and a more equal relationship between men and women.
The basis of marriage and family has changed into one in which the couple are free to define the relationship themselves rather than simply acting out roles that have been defined in advance by law or tradition.
The typical relationship is the ‘pure relationship’….It exists solely to meet the partners’ needs and is likely to continue only so long as it succeeds.
Couples stay together because of love, happiness of sexual attraction rather than tradition a sense of duty or for the sake of the children.
Relationships become part of the process of self-discovery or self-identity trying different relationships become part of establishing who we are part of our journey of self discovery.
Ulrich Beck: The ‘Risk Society’ and The Negotiated Family
Beck argues that we now live in a ‘risk society’ where tradition has less influence and people have more choice.
As a result we are more aware of risk because having choice means we spend more time calculating the risks and rewards of different
Even though the traditional patriarchal family was unequal and oppressive, it did provide a stable and predictable basis for the family by defining each member’s role and responsibly
Greater Gender Equality – which has challenged male domination in all spheres of life. Women now expect equality both at work and in marriage.
Greater individualism – where people’s actions are influenced more by calculations of their own self-interest that by a sense of obligation to others.