Lipofuscin - yellow pigment
happens with older adults in cells that are chronically damaged. Is found in the brain, liver, heart, and ovaries and is not known to interfere with cell function
excessive Melanin accumulation
in skin conditions such as melanoma and Addison's disease
excess Iron --> hemosiderin accumulation
this is a derivative of hemoglobin, commonly seen with bruising in which hemosiderin accumulation happens after RBC breakdown by macrophages in an area. bilverdin and bilirubin are also seen in bruising and come from hemoglobin (Hb)
endogenous pigments are produced by the body
melanin, hemosiderin, bilirubin
exogenous pigments are inorganic materials
glycogen vacuoles are found in cytoplasm of epithelial cells of proximal renal tubules, loop of Henle, liver heart, Isle of Langerhans (pancreas)
most often involved with diabetes mellitus b/c of lack of insulin
also found in some genetic disorders where specific enzymes are defective.
1) in dying or dead tissue or in unhealed, chronically damaged tissue-occurs in TB
3) in the center of tumours
2) advanced staged of atherosclerosis in heart valves and coronary arteries
calcification due to calcium imbalance (this can be hormonal) in the system with calcium precipitating in kidney, blood vessels and connective tissue.
takes place in mitochondria when cells are damaged.
formation of a glassy, crystalline deposit in or outside of cells.
can be caused by viral infection, extracellular deposition of glycoprotiens, excess production of basement membrane substance.
Cellular Swelling - a.k.a hydropic swelling / cloudy swelling
reversible to a point
a common early sign of many kinds of cell injury
the cell swells as water accumulates and large vacuoles containing water form
water imbalance can occur if the Na/K ATPase pump is disabled which is what occurs in metabolic failure. Example: Na accumulates and water is drawn into the cell.
Lipid Accumulation (fatty change)
fat droplets accumulate in ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and golgi due to metabolic dysfunction. The fat deposits crowd out the cell and form extracellular fatty deposit.
when the cell enlarges the organ enlarges
this happens mainly in organs that utilize lipods as an energy source
leads to necrosis and funcitonal impairment of the entire organ
accumulation of lipids occurs in Tay-Sachs and Gaucher's disease leading to severe retardation
takes place most often in the liver with triglyceride accumulation and FFA mobilization. blocked processing of lipids leads to their build up in liver parenchyma
takes place as a result of alcohol abuse, toxicity with CCl4 --> fatty change --> fibrosis (cirrhosis)
can occur in the
due to chronic hypoxia
can occur in the
due to toxic damage
Takes place mainly in the epithelial cells of renal convoluted tubule (protein is not common in the kidneys)
SPECIAL NOTE - Amyloid resprouting - accumulations of protein with excessive buildup is suggested as a cause of Alzeimers disease.