Unit 3 Key Terms
Unit 3 Key Terms
gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell.
Sickle Cell Disease: Individuals who are homozygous for the gene controlling hemoglobin S. The disease is characterized by the destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium.
Mitosis-A process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves a series of steps, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
Autosomal-A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome.
Dominant-A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait.
Mutated-A rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Hydrophobic-Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
Hereditary-The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant.
tRNA-An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
Leukocytes-Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin, contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
homologous chromosomes-Chromosomes having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order.
Punnett square-A simple graphical way of discovering all of the potential combinations of genotypes of an offspring, given the parents’ genotypes.
Translation-The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids.
RNA-A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Chromosomes-Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
Genotype-All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
Nucleotides-The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Thrombocytes-A minute colorless anucleate disklike body of mammalian blood that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium.
Hemoglobin-A test that measures the level of hemoglobin A1c in the blood as a means of determining the average blood sugar concentrations for the preceding two to three months.
amino acids-An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins.
Ribosome-A cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules and is formed by combining two subunits
genetic material-Molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms
Allele-Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects
Recessive- A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
Codon-A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
Gene-A discrete unit of hereditary information.
Pedigrees-A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
Transcription-The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
Erythrocytes-Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood.
Mutation-A rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Phenotype-The physical and physiological traits of an organism that are determined by its genetic makeup.
protein synthesis-The creation of a protein from a DNA template.
Anemia-A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.
Meiosis-The cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes
Karyotype-A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
messenger RNA-A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA and attached to ribosomes in the cytoplasm; it specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Hydrophilic-Having an affinity for water.