Phase III. Powerful media rediscovered. Part A. Concept (New values. The…
Phase III. Powerful media rediscovered. Part A. Concept
One of the function of mass media is to determinate what to think about.
It's important to know what agenda we are talking about
Perceived community agenda
: what you think is most important to your community
: what you talk most about with others
: political parties and movements
: what you personally consider to be important.
McCombs gave 5 phases of agenda setting theory
Conclusion: it's easy to determinate correlations but effects are trickier. Online new services pose a challenge to the agenda setting function of mass media.
. Primes are stimuli that activate specific association in your memory and cognition.Priming refer to the process of activating certain association patterns. Memory is conceptualized as a network: every notion/concept is a node that can be activated.
Some critics can be addressed to this conception. Primes have proven to have serious limitations.
The intensity and frequency of the prime
Primes wither away with time
How recent the prime is
Does not say anything about convincing
. to frame is to select some aspects of the perceived reality and make them more salient
3 main approaches
Cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics frames
Sociologie and communication studies
How to identify frame?
(what kind of frame)
Issues specific frames
2 methodological strategies
Inductive strategy analysis
Deductive strategy analysis
. The gatekeeper controls whether information passes through the channel.
Gatekeepers can take many forms
Professional codes of conduct
. The main question is: How media of countries in the periphery of the first world report on major crisis in the third world?
Spiral of silence
(Elizabeth Noelle Neumann) It states that the perception individuals have of public opinion will impact on their willingness to voice their personal opinion.
"Return of the concept of powerful media"
She highlights some elements
The media work through cumulation: mdi message are repeated over multiple channels several times . Chances of selective are therefore limited .
Consonance of media messages: news values, commercial motivations, professional competition lead to a reduction of contradictory messages and increases the chance of perceiving a homogenous public opinion
Most people get confronted with media message either directly or through two-step flow
Publicness: people use their personal observations , social network and media in order to construct an image of public opinion.
Noelle Neumann argued that five hypotheses need to be tested:
The perception hypothesis
The speak-out hypothesis
Media effect hypothesis
The assessment of future trend hypothesis
The theory is based on the following assumptions
People are not rational but let themselves be guided by fear of isolation
This fear causes individuals to assess the climate of opinion continuously
Individuals experience fear for isolation continuously
The result of this assessment affects public behavior and the willingness to expression opinions publicly
Society threatens deviant individuals with isolation
People are inclined to conform themselves to the dominant opinion
Gerbners's cultural approach cover 3 research domains
The analysis of the media messages themselves: media system analysis
The analysis of cultivation effect: cultivation analysis
The analysis of factors that determine the production of media messages: institutional process analysis
There are differences in how cultivation works