Conflict and Tension 1918 - 1939
Conflict and Tension 1918 - 1939
Hitler and the road to WWII
Policies towards Hitler
France - due to people rebelling after the depression France struggled to concentrate on Hitler. They couldn't tackle Hitler without Britain so also signed the Stresa Front.
USSR - Stalin was concerned about Hitler as he had vowed to destroy communism. He began to develop better relations with capitalist countries to help prevent Hitler's spread into the East.
Britain - wanted to try and appease Hitler by giving him a little of what he wanted in the hope of preventing a full-scale war. Also, signed the Stresa Front proposing unite with France and Italy in order to tackle Hitler.
USA - the USA had an unemployment rate of 25% due to the depression. A poll had shown that 70% of the population didn't want war. They tried to get Hitler to stop invading countries
Hitler wanted Austria to become part of Germany. Englebert Dollfuss, the chancellor of Germany did not. Hitler encouraged attacks against the government. In July 1914 Dollfuss was killed in attempted coup. After this the Nazi party in Austria took over and annexed Austria.
Hitler's foreign policy aims
Unite all Germans - Border changes after World War One left many German speakers in foreign countries, this needed to be reversed.
Territory to be seized - Hitler claimed that Germany needed "lebensraum" (living space) in the East.
Rearm - Germany had been disarmed under the Treaty of Versailles, this needed to be reversed.
After what happened with Austria, Hitler turned to the Saar. The Saar was the industrialised region of Germany and Hitler claimed that the French were mis-treating them. And so he called for a plebiscite in which 90% voted to return to Germany.
The rebuilding of the armed forces
Hitler withdrew Germany from the LON's disarmament conference in 1933. The removing them from the league. In March the following year he brought in conscription.
In response to this the allies; Italy, France and Britain; signed the Stresa Front promising to unite in preventing Hitler from starting another war.
The Stresa Front was undermined by the Anglo-German naval agreement where Britain and Germany signed an agreement saying that Hitler could build his navy to 35% the size of Britain's and was allowed 45% of the number of British submarines
Hitler saw this as Britain admitting that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair and that they could, therefore ignore it.
The military terms of the Treaty were officially dead, significantly, Britain hadn't consulted France and Italy before signing this agreement.
Treaty of St. Germain - Austria 10th September 1919
Military Restrictions - 30,000 men in the army; no conscription; no navy.
Other terms - Austria was forbidden from uniting with Germany.
Reparations - The amount was never fixed, but Austria was told to pay reparations.
Impacts - Italy felt they weren't given enough land; much of Austria's industry was lost to Czechoslovakia.
Land - Austria lost land to Italy and Romania. Land was taken to create the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia; Poland was given land.
Treaty of Sèvres - Turkey - 10th August 1920
Military Restrictions - Turkish army restricted to 50,000 men; the navy was restricted to 7 sail boats and 6 torpedo boats.
Other terms - had to open Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits; Allies allowed to keep troops in Turkey.
Land - Turkey lost land to Greece; in Europe, Turkey lost all its land, except a small area around constantinople; the Ottoman empire was split up.
Impacts - People furious with Treaty so overthrew the government; Britain didn't want a war with Turkey so overruled the treaty with the Treaty of Lausanne.
Treaty of Trianon - Hungary - 4th June 1920
Reparations - Agreed that reparations should be set but the amount was not fixed. The Hungarian economy collapsed so nothing was ever actually paid.
Military Restrictions - 30,000 men in the Hungarian army; no conscription; only allowed three patrol boats.
Land - Hungarian land was lost Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Austria.
Treaty of Neuilly - Bulgaria - 27th November 1919
Reparations- £100 million
Military Restrictions - Bulgarian army limited to 20,000; no conscription; no airforce; only four battleships.
Land - Bulgaria lost land to Yugoslavia, Greece and Romania. However, Bulgaria did gain some land from Turkey.
Treaty of Lousanne - Turkey - July 1923
Turkey regained - Some of the land Greece had taken; control of the dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits; the right to decide how big their armed forces were.
Other terms - Reparations were cancelled and Allied troops were withdrawn.
The Big Three
Woodrow Wilson "The good man from the new world"
Wilson believed that punishing Germany would only make Germany want revenge.
He suggested 14 points to bring would peace.
Wilson was very idealistic.
He wanted to make countries like Poland (which shared a border with Germany) strong and independent.
The USA had suffered much less than Europe.
He wanted France to feel safe from another German attack.
He wanted to set up a League of Nations to protect world peace.
David Lloyd George "The Welsh Wizard"
Agreed with many of Wilson's 14 points.
Wanted Germany to rebuild so they could be a trading partner with Britain.
Wanted a fair settlement.
British public demanded that Germany should be punished.
DLG was a very pragmatic man.
Georges Clemenceau "The Tiger"
There was a lot of devastation (75,000 homes, 23,000 factories, 1.5 million French dead)
Felt Germany should be punished and should compensate France for the damage.
Much of the war had taken place in France.
Wanted to protect France from another Germany invasion (they had invaded France in 1870 and 1914)
He was vengeful.
22nd September 1938 - Hitler changes his demands and wants the Sudetenland by 1st October but also for Hungary and Italy to gain land.
30th September 1938 - Sudetenland given to Germany
15th September 1938 - Neville Chaimberlain meets with Hitler in an attempt to appease him.
2nd October - Land given to Hungary and Italy
May 1938 - Hitler states that he will fight for the Sudetenland.
1st November 1938 - Czech land annexed by Poland.
Why the Sudetenland?
Hitler saw destroying Czechoslovakia as righting another part of the Treaty of Versailles.
He also wanted the area's factories and industry to aid his war effort.
Hitler targeted the Sudetenland because he saw invading the Sudetenland as the first step in destroying Czechoslovakia.
The Sudetenland crisis was a fully malicious invasion rather than Lebensraum or Unification.
Without appeasement Britain and France would have had to go to war.
February - March 1932 - Japan attacked and conquered Shanghai, the League declared a ceasefire, which the Chinese accepted but the Japanese did not.
October 1932 - Litton's report stated that Japan was the aggressor and should leave.
December 1931 - The League set up a commission under Lord Litton to investigate, he did not arrive in Manchuria until April 1932 and did not report back until October of the same year.
24th February 1932 - The Assembly voted that Japan return Manchuria, Japan walked out of the meeting. The League could not agree economic sanctions or an arms sale ban.
October 1931 - China appealed to the League of nations.
1933 - Japan resigned from the League and invaded Jehol - next to Manchuria.
September 1931 - Japan blamed the Chinese for sabotage on the Japanese - owned South Manchurian Railway, invaded Manchuria and set up the Japanese controlled state of Manchuko under the former Emperor of China, Henry P'ui.
They needed more space so staged an attack on the South Manchurian Railway giving them an excuse to invade Manchuria.
Manchuria would give Japan the space it needed to grow crops for and house its growing populus.
Japan could nor feed its growing population, they also could not decrease surplus population by immigration.
League of Nations
Structure of the League
Council - Had the power to veto and overrule assembly decisions. Four permanent members (Britain, France, Italy & Japan) and four non-permanent members.
Assembly - 42 countries which met once a year. Every member sent representatives.
Agencies and commissions - International Labour Organisation, Mantales Commission, Minorities Commisions.
Secretariat - prepared reports, records and translated documents. International civil service.
Permanent court of international justice - 15 judges gave a decision on disputes but only when a country requests.
Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations in the 1920's
The Great Depression