Research Literature Review: (Trends (pg 21 Uni of Leicester- "A third…
Research Literature Review:
Loss of faith in criminal justice system
Hate crime victimisation had become a routine feature of everyday life for many participants, and particularly those who felt cut-off from 'mainstream' society. pg 36 Uni of Leicester
pg 67 Uni of Leicester- the greater the impact the hate crime had on the respondent at the time, the more likely they were to have reported it to the police.
Verbal Abuse- least likely to have reported the crime to the police 16%
Hate Crimes are often described as 'message crimes' designed to intimidate not only the victim but also their family and even the broader community they are perceived to belong to pg 46 Uni of Leicester
pg 63 Uni of Leicester- of the thousands of people we engaged with over the course of the research only a small proportion knew what a hate crime was and barely anyone had any knowledge of existing hate crime laws.
In addition to having little prior knowledge of hate crime laws, relatively few respondents has any prior experience of seeing their offenders brought to justice through the court system.
pg 66 Uni of Leicester- only one in four victims had reported their most recent experience of hate crime to the police
over half of all respondents had not reported their experiences to anyone.
Third of respondents who had reported a hate crime to the police did not feel that the police had recorded it such
A third of respondents where dissatisfied with the police response pg. 68 Uni of Leicester
Third of cases the perpetrators had been known to victims as either acquaintances, neighbours, friends, work colleagues, family members or carers.pg 54
male offenders whose crime had taken place in a leisure venue such as a bar, pub or nightclub 88% pg 55 (Uni of Leicester)
Survey Respondents were more likely to reported the hate crime to the Police if they knew the offenders involved pg 67 Uni of Leicester
Underpinning Theory: Methodology
9 out of 10 victims had experienced verbal abuse (Uni of Leicester) pg 15
"Verbal abuse emerged as the form of hate crime most likely to have been experienced by respondents 87% had been targeted this way" (Uni of Leicester)
pg 18 " Men were more likely than women to have experienced verbal abuse"
7 out of 10 had experienced harassment (Uni of Leicester) pg 15
34% experienced it repeatedly
pg 18. "Men were more likely than women to say they had experienced harassment regularly"
"Experiences of cumulative harms of the more 'ordinary' abuse, bullying and harassment go unacknowledged" (Uni of Leicester
11% of the sample experienced property crime (e.g. Burglary, theft, criminal damage (Uni of Leicester) pg 16
32% Experienced Violent Crime with 8% repeatedly (Uni of Leicester)
pg 18. "Men were more likely to than women to have experienced violent crime"
One in Ten respondents had been sexually assaulted (Uni of Leicester) pg 16
pg 21 Uni of Leicester- "A third of victims had been targeted because of hostility towards their race"
Race was most commonly cited by respondents as being the reason for why they had been targeted (33%). Dress and appearance emerges as a significant contributory factor for 21% of respondents.
pg 22 Black and Asian people were more likely than respondents overall to say that their race had been a reason for why they were targeted 85% of blacks and 54% of Asians
Other Research and Findings
What is a Hate Crime
"any crime or incident where the perpetrators hostility or prejudice against an identifiable group of people is a factor in determining who is victimised" (Uni of Leicester)
(Uni of Leicester pg. 25) It became apparent from the interviews that victims are often targeted not because of just one aspect of their identity, but rather because of multiple factors such as visual identity markers or finding themselves in high risk situational context. e.g. religious markers veil/turban
How does hate crime affect victims?
95% of victims felt that hate crime had detrimentally affected their quality of life with feelings of depression and suicide. pg 36 (Uni of Leicester)
Nearly one in five felt that these hate crimes had made them retaliate verbally or physically 18% pg 51
Over one in ten had attempted to conceal their identity 12% or had changed their appearance ir way they dress 11%
8% stated that they turned to alcohol; and
5% stated that they had taken prescription or non-prescription drugs
Over a third avoid going out at night 36%
Where are people victimised? (Uni of Leicester pg 31)
A third of hate crimes had taken place in a public street or park
A third of harassment offences had taken place outside or near the victims home
7% In or around a bar, pub or nightclub
13% In a city centre
Pg 32 "Those who work within the nighttime economy frequently experienced fraught and difficult situations when dealing with drunk and abusive customers, with many of the taxi drivers, restaurant workers and takeaway owners feeling especially prone to being harassed while carrying out their jobs
The fear of victimisation within a public setting can have a significant emotional impact on victims and their families.
Respondents whose most recent hate incident had involved violent crime where more likely to have experienced: In a public street or park 58% compared with 32% overall. In the city centre 21% compared with the 13% overall.
In a bar, pub or nightclub (14% compared with 7% overall) pg 34