Activity levels- Reduced energy levels, makes the sufferer lethargic. Sufferers tend to withdraw from work, social events etc. Can be so bad sufferer cannot get out of bed. Can be opposite, psychomotor agitation. Pacing due to agitation.
Disruption to sleep- Reduced sleep (insomnia). Increased need for sleep (hypersomnia). Appetite may in or decrease too.
Aggression/self harm- Often irritable. Physically or verbally aggressive. Example may quit job. Can lead to physical aggression directed at self, including self harm or suicide attempts.
Lowered mood- Feeling sad. Patients will often describe themselves as worthless and empty.
Anger- Experiences of negative emotions are not limited to sadness. Frequently experience anger, can be extreme. Can be directed at self (self harm) or others (depression).
Lowered self esteem- Sufferers like themselves less than usual, and can be very extreme, with some sufferers describing self-loathing.
COGNITIVE- Concerned with the way in which people process information.
Poor concentration- Associated with poor levels of concentration. Unable to stick with a task, and find things hard that are normally straightforward. Likely to interfere with an individuals work.
Attending and dwelling on negatives- Pay more attention on bad things that happen. Glass half empty. Bias to recalling unhappy events.
Absolutist thinking- Sufferers think of one extreme or the other (all bad or all good). 'Black and white thinking.'
DSM 5-Categories of Depression
Major depressive disorder- severe but short term.
Persistent depressive disorder- long term/ recurring.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder- Childhood temper tantrums.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder- disruption to mood prior/ during menstruation.