contemporary urban environments
contemporary urban environments
urban heat island
fog is increased with industrialisation
thunder develops in humid air
densely populated area
metropolitan area is warmer than rural areas.
created from energy from peoples cars
channelling = wind directed down a long straight canyon
urban canyon = spaces between buildings
venture effect = effect squeezing wind into gaps
clean air acts = a low established way to reduce pollution
public = public transport to reduce congestion
zoning = force chimneys to be higher above the urban canopy layer.
the reflectivity of a surface
particulate air pollution
air pollution caused by releases of particles and gases
air pollution that occurs in cities and is dangerous to health
unnatural air conditioning
small scale variations in climate change
high car ownership
if you move you leave behind the unskilled
the rural turnaround (social and demographic change in a rural area)
Birmingham to Hagley
This is the movement of people away but out of the urban area altogether and into the rural one.
attempts to attract young pros
seen more in HICs
severe industrial decline
Urban Development Corporations
It was a scheme introduced in the 1980sto regenerate the city to make it more urbanised. People that stayed here were commonly from the local businesses and were asked to invest money into the land as a private investment. They acted as attraction areas for tourists as they would bring in more investment to the area to spend on more development. It was effective in attracting new businesses as it would gain a positive multiplier effect. Because of this, 190,000 jobs were created nationally. However, it did not tackle social problems as houses were knocked down and relocated causing problems for children. Local people complained as they had little involvement.
The Jewellery Quarter
Factories close because they may go abroad, the workforce may have lower wages, they are cheaper to build abroad due to less planning and environmental laws, there is a lack of land for expansion, lower levels of education means people will work harder for less pay.
Birmingham - Quinton
push and pull factors
This is described as decentralisation where a movement of people from the inner city to the edge of a city has happened.
Characteristics are - streets lined with trees, dive ways, wider pathways, detached or semi detached housing and parking lanes on the road.
acid rain destroys buildings
reduction in noise and pollution
loss of jobs
unable to pay tax
closure of businesses so they are unable to support the industry
decline in property prices
competition causes conflict
unable to provide
causes out migration
severe economic decline
competition from abroad
reduced demand for products
municipal = from street cleaning
domestic = from households
commercial = from offices and retail
institutional = from schools unis and hospitals
municipal solid waste
Amsterdam Landfill and Infilltration
improve brownfield sites
promoting wildlife and biodiversity
Sheffield Blue Loop
slows down surface water run-off
reduces risk of flooding
preventing water pollution
provides habitats for wildlife
creates green space
causes of urban growth
rural - urban migration
natural population growth
Less room for larger homes. Less room to grow crops as farmland is taken away causing long term problems such as food shortages and as there is a growing population there are more people to feed. This is less economically efficient as it requires more roads and infrastructure.
The more people that migrate the more people seek jobs. These people are relatively young as they seek to find a new start as cities have the things that they need but this leads to pressure to create sufficient jobs. Employment rates have increased, in particular in the informal sector.
People may become homeless so the streets look unappealing. People then claim benefits putting pressure on the government.
lack of services
The most common is water and electricity. There is a lack of maintenance in infrastructure such as roads leading to potential traffic congestion. The lack of drainage and sewage can cause widespread of disease. The lack of waste disposal is increasing each year as it is due to rapid population growth so this may cause health hazards as disease may be carried by pests and pass onto humans.
this lead to major pollution levels which caused health problems, for example astma. The pollution is increased during rush hour due to people travelling to and from work. But due to urbanisation and development it attracts more people with cars increasing traffic congestion.
poverty and diversity
ways to tackle poverty
Poland to the UK
urban form (physical characteristics)
social patterns of land use
peak land use and distance decay theory
the further away from the city the more it declines
starting to spread outwards
people that have lost their jobs in deindustrialisation have been employed in the service industry.
located in HICs
access international markets
manage development and reduce issues
urban development corporations
to regenerate the inner city
Service Industry's are taking over HICs due to companies wanting professional services such as consultancy, training or marketing as it can help them improve their business performance. There is an increasing demand for health, education and entertainment services. They are helpful if a business is going through change as they can help increase growth.
Many people who lost their jobs during deindustrialisation have not been re-employed in the service industry
They are often part time or temporary roles.
Some inner city locations have been avoided by this industry leading to continued decline.