The process by which external or internal environmental stimulus stimulate the receptor cells, which transmit their information to higher brain centres.
So, sensation converts external energy into an internal neurophysiological process, which “results” in a particular psychological experience. E.g. we see the star and feel the pain.
For each of the five senses (vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste), separate neural pathways normally carry sensory information to specific regions in the brain. The nature of sensation depends on the area of the brain that is activated by a signal.
For example, electrical stimulation of the primary visual cortex, which is located in the occipital lobes of the brain, produces visual sensations, whereas stimulation of the auditory complex in the temporal lobe