KQ5- Study 1: The Korean War (COMPLETED) (Why did N Korea invade the south…
KQ5- Study 1: The Korean War (COMPLETED)
What was the significance of the Korean war?
First hot-spot of the cold war
first real test for the new UN, who were determined to show that they were stronger than the old LoN
First time cold war had excited Europe
What was the 38th Parallel in relation to the Korean War?
line of latitude that separates (communist) N Korea and (capitalist) S korea
chosen as frontier between american and soviet sectors of Korea in 1945
it was the crossing of this line that resulted in UN action
the finishing point for the 2 sides at the end of the Korean war. Modern boundary.
Why did N Korea invade the south in June 1950?
Kim Il Sung
1949: USA/ USSR pull out troops, the region becomes unstable
1949: China falls to communists under Mao Zedong
Kim Il Sung wanted to unite Korea
had support of Mao and Stalin
believed the USA wouldn't respond
N Korea though it was the legitimate government of Korea
N Korea's Forces stronger than S Korea's
1950: Rhee threatens North, North invades
Why did the UN become involved in Korea?
The UN had been involved in setting up the new anti-com gov in the south
Both S and N claimed to be legitimate gov of korea
Kim wanted to unite korea, if the UN didn't oppose US would
Truman pressured UN SC
USSR wasn't included in discussions
Response of The UN in June 1950?
UN SC meeting called imeadiately
UN Sc decided that N had broken world piece
UN SC passed a resolution demanding N withdraw to the 38th
UN asked members to help S, US in charge of a force made up from 15 nations
Why did the USA oppose N invasion of S?
US believed that if Korea fell then Formossa and Japan were under threat (Domino effect)
US was worried of losing their influence
wanted to tackle communism (roll back)
wanted to win the cold war
Stalin also wanted to be influential in the east
Stalin worked alongside Kim Il Sung
Stalin saw an oppurtunity to confront the US 'at arms length', without nuclear threat
In 1950 Rhee boasted that he could take the N,
good enough excuse for Kim
Why Did the US provided most of the forces?
the US was the most involved in tackling communism (containment)
The US had been closely involved in establishing the S
The US appealed to the UN, so they should provide the most forces.
Events of the War
June- Sept 1950:
N Koreans attack the south, very successful, defeating the S forces
The US alarmed,
persuade the UN to pass resolution supporting the S
US send troops to help S at Pussan
Sept - Nov 1950:
Macarthur invades at Inchon with 300,000 UN troops (260,000 US)
Cuts off N forces
N forced to retreat
Macarthur pressed on
re-taking the south
invading the N (7 Oct)
moved to the Chinese border
Nov 1950- Feb 1951
200,000 C attacked MacArthur
C armed with modern weapons (from Russia)
C hated US
500,000 more C attack US
US driven back
C advanced into the South
Feb 1951- Mar 1951
American's landed more troops
brought in bombers
Chinese suffered heavy losses
US drove Chinese back, but also took losses
MacArthur reached 38th Parallel (March 1951)
Mar 1951 - Jul 1953
Truman ordered MacArthur to stop
MacArthur criticised Truman and was sacked
in 1953 Eisenhower elected
US threatened to nuke china if they didn't stop fighting
truce signed on the 27 July 1953
Why Did the Korean War end in a Stalemate?
MacArthur had underestimated China
if the USA was unwillingly to use the bomb/ if the Chinese had ignored the threat, there would have been heavy losses
The UN wanted an end to the conflict, compromise was the best option
How successful was Containment in Korea?
The US stopped communism spreading from the North
The US used the UN to reinforce their policy
Nuclear weapons weren't used
highlighted tension among US leaders
A unified Korea wasn't acheived
loss of life
The US couldn't act without UN support
US accused of being expansionist
Was the UN effective in Korea?
Made a decision to stop war
was decisive and quick
The UN didn't achieve their policy on uniting Korea
The UN appeared to be siding with the US, not neutral
Both sides remain hostile
How Great a threat was the Korean war to world peace?
If war had moved into China, then the USSR would have been involved (Sino-Soviet Mutual Alliance)
Nuclear arms were nearly used
The UN acted quickly
the UN organised peace
The UN response was successful
Truman didn't want the war to move into China
The conflict ended peacefully