Motivating and Rewarding Employees (Early theories of motivation…
Motivating and Rewarding Employees
The process by which a person's efforts are energized,directed,and sustained toward attaining a goal
3 Key elements
Effort that's directed toward,and consistent with,organizational goals is the kind of effort we want from employees.
We want employees to persist in putting forth effort to achieve those goals.
Energy element is a measure of intensity or drive.
Early theories of motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Security and protection from harm
Assurance that physical needs will continue to be met
Other physical requirements
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
A negative view of people that assumes workers have little ambition,dislike work,want to avoid responsibility,and need to be closely controlled to work effectively.
A positive view that assumes employees enjoy work,seek out and accept responsibility,and exercise self-direction.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg's motivation theory,which proposes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation,whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction
Relationship with supervisor
Relationship with peers
Relationship with employees
Satisfaction vs. Dissatisfaction
When hygiene factors are adequate,people won't be dissatisfied,but they won't be motivated,either.
To motivate people,use the motivators.
McClelland's Three-Needs Theory
Need for power
The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for affiliation
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Need for achievement
The drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards
nAch has been researched the most
Receiving rapid and unambiguous feedback on their performance in order to tell whether they're improving
Moderately challenging goals
Jobs that offer personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems
Contemporary theories of motivation
3 Other contingencies besides feedback
5 Core job dimensions
The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals,when accepted,result in higher performance than do easy goals
Guidelines for Job Redesign
Establish client relationships
Expand jobs vertically
Form natural work units
Open feedback channels
Core job dimension
Job Characteristics Model
The theory that an employee compares his or her job's input-to-outcome ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
3 Referent categories
The "system" category includes organizational pay policies,procedures,and allocation.
The "self" category refers to inputs-outcomes ratios that are unique to the individual.
The "persons" category includes other individuals with similar jobs in the same organization but also includes friends,neighbors,or professional associates
Equity theory relationships
Perceived ratio comparison
Valence/Attractiveness of reward
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Goals Direct Behavior
Current motivation issues
Managers motivate unique groups of workers
Motivating a diverse workforce
Motivating contingent workers
The desire for interesting work seems to be global
Employee recognition programs
Programs that consist of personal attention and expressions of interest,approval,and appreciation for a job well done
Variable compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure
A motivational approach in which an organization's financial statements are shared with all employees