Biology Section 4: Ecology and Environment (COMPLETED) (A (The Organism in…
Biology Section 4: Ecology and Environment (COMPLETED)
The Organism in the Environment
Number of individuals in a particular species.
Populations of different species interacting.
The area where a population lives.
A community in a particular habitat made up of different populations interacting with in the habitat.
A square of around a meter takes a sample from a area and the populations are counted.
This can be repeated many times before being multiplyed out as if it were the complete area of the land.
Two different samples can be put in two separate areas and the sampling done for both will estimate population for both areas.
A sample square is taken at random.
The number of a population in that square is taken.
This is repeated in different areas and compared to show where populations are dense and not.
turns light energy into chemical energy
eats the producer and gains its energy
e.g secondary consumer, eats primary consumer
break down living matter and recycle the nutrients
A food chain shows the transfer of energy up the food chain beginning with the producers then the primary consumers and so forth.
A food web links several animals within a habitat showing what consumes what and is consumed by what.
A pyramid of number progresses through the trophic levels of a food chain representing the number of each species by the area of the pyramid block.
A pyramid of biomass represents the mass of each consumer (and producer) by the area of a pyramid block.
A pyramid of energy shows the transfer of energy through the food chain.
Transfer of energy and toxins
As one thing consumes another the energy and other things inside it- for example fat and vitamins- get transferred to the consumer. If you eat a fatty piece of beef you get the fat from the cow.
The reason why not all of the energy (only 10%) will make it to the next tropic level is that some of it will be used up on the level it is at.
The energy is used for the life processes of the animal that it is in.
Cycles within ecosystems
Evaporation is when water turns into steam due to being heated
Transpiration is when water is evaporated from leaves
Condensation is when water vapour turns into water due to being cooled, this forms clouds
Precipitation is when water is released from a cloud, e.g. rain, snow, hail
Respiration is carried out by animals and plants to release energy from glucose,
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O .
This means carbon is produced.
Photosynthesis is what plants do to create glucose
6 CO2 + 12 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O.
This means carbon is used.
Decomposition is happens when an animal dies, it is then eaten by a decomposer which releases the carbon in it back into the atmosphere.
Combustion is burning, if something with carbon is burnt it will release it into the atmosphere, e.g. a tree, fossil fuel.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria turn nitrogen from N2 into ammonia.
Decomposers break down dead animals, urea and egested materials which releases nitrogen into the soil as ammonia.
Nitrifying bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen.
Denitrifying bacteria break down nitrates into nitrogen which is then released into the atmosphere.