CHAPTER 13 European Visions
-Members of ancient Scandinavian people: a member of a Scandinavian people who carried out seaborne raids of northwestern Europe between the 8th and 11th centuries ad, often settling in the areas they invaded, as in Britain.
-The son of Erik the Red. He sailed from west Norway to Greenland but strong winds blew his ship off course and carried him all the way to the North American coast
William the Conqueror
-. Duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Battle of Lepanto
- A naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies ahd surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
- Business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc
-An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century
-The father of scholasticism that considered how reason can be used to develop and increase faith. His ontological argument proves the existence of God by calling on the Platonic view of reality.
Francis of Assisi
-Italian monk who founded the Franciscan order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick
- Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
The Black Death
- This disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God's punishment
- The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
-A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
-The family members were wealthy politicians, businessmen, and patrons of the arts who influenced both individuals and the bigger picture, in Florence and all of Europe
- German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable printing type in Europe around 1439
Henry the Navigator
-Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa
-Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean
Vasco de Balboa
-Spanish explorer who discovered the Pacific Ocean
- Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year Charles V became emperor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521)
-English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands
A New World:
Explorers to Asia wanted to seized good and convert people to Christianity and created new trade routes.
Columbus thought he reached Asia and the inhabitants were ready to convert to Christianity in his eyes.
Bartolomeu Dias and Christopher Columbus were two explorers at the same time. Columbus wanted a transatlantic journey to go to India but Dias proved there was another route.
Columbus landed in the New World without realizing it wasn't Asia.
Henry found profit form gold and slaves on the western coast of Africa
Amerigo Vespucci recognized Columbus's failure and explored South America
Prince Henry was curious about ocean exploration and tried to sail around Africa
Only the Eastern coast of the Americas was known until 1513
Portugal wanted to find an alternate route to India
Trade and Social Change in Europe:
Agricultural productivity increases along with a rebirth of long distance trade
Guilds and City-states Confront Rural Aristocrats
Trade organizations called guilds were formed and are reminiscent of unions
International guilds were present but a majority were local guilds
Economic and Social Conflict within the City
North Italy and Flanders dominated urban economies
Textile production created upward mobility in the class system which lead to conflict
Revolts broke out and the poor hoped to receive better benefits in the working world
Class antagonists increased after hardships and couldn't go on strike
New Directions in Philosophy and Learning
Shifts in religious values occurred even before the Renaissance
Philosophers thought pure faith wasn't enough for salvation
Christian scholars translated Arabic texts the Arabs preserved
Universities were created to preserve and transmit knowledge commonly through practical topics like medicine
Curricula included theology, grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy
Aquinas was ahead of his time with the beliefs revolving around logic and faith
The Golliard Poets wrote about youthful pleasures and modern conventions
Changes in Religion and Philosophy helped create the Renaissance
Disasters of the Fourteenth Century: Famine, plague, and War
Many areas suffered depopulation
The plague originated in Asia and China and reached Europe through trade
The Renaissance also brought hardships such as famine and the Plague
Social Unrest Follows the Plague
Peasants that survived the plague were helped by the labor shortages from the deaths
Revolts for better working conditions occurred commonly
Vikings were the primary citizens of Europe's North Atlantic
Christopher Columbus helped unite the Eastern and Western hemispheres
Vikings commonly traded and also liked urban development.
Vikings became more peaceful after possible assimilation to the slavs
Voyages across the Atlantic were uncommon at this time
New Artistic Styles
Art and commercial needs melded together by the 15th century.
The City of Florence was a artistic center in the world
Art had religious themes and some introduced perspective and depth
The Church Revises its Economic Polocies
Jews mostly dealt with money lending because of this
The Church initially did not like businesses and the quest for profit and wealth
Churches became more accepting of businesses and business men
Western European trade was popular in some city states but others wanted other routes to indies
Developments in Technology
Cannons on ships gave firepower even though the Chinese invented gunpowder centuries earlier
Chinese also invented the ides of the printing press and movable type but Europe made them before China got the chance
Innovations in trade including Lateen sails were created during this time
Business began to double entry book keeping for accurate transactions
A common philosophy during this time was Humanism; the belief the study of man is man.
The Decline of Trade in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean became a war zone between Christian and Muslim traders
Others wanted shorter routes to the Indian Ocean
Arab armies took over the Mediterranean region making it a region for Muslim trade
Legacies to the Future: What difference do they make?
Sailors were called on different sets of values to explore and go on voyages
Traders established permanent connections between the eastern and western hemispheres
Australia remained unmapped until 1768 by James Cook.