Foundations of Individual Behavior (Different personality theories (Five…
Foundations of Individual Behavior
Focus and Goals
A performance measure of both work efficiency and effectiveness
The failure to show up for work
Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization
Organizational citizenship behavior
Discretionary behavior that's not part of an employee's formal job requirements,but that promotes the effective functioning of the organization
An employee's general attitude toward his or her job
Any intentional employee behavior that is potentially harmful to the organization or individuals within the organization
The role that attitudes play in job performance
The 3 components of an attitude
The part of an attitude that's the emotional or feeling part
The part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
The part of an attitude made up of the beliefs,opinions,knowledge,and information held by a person
Type of work
Providing good service to customers
Cognitive dissonance theory
The importance of the factors creating the dissonance
The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over those factors
The rewards that may be involved in dissonance
Importance of factors
Degree of influence
Be more effective
Satisfied and committed employees have lower rates of turnover and absenteeism
Satisfied employees do perform better on the job
A sound measurement of overall job attitude is one of the most useful pieces of information an organization can have about its employees
Employees will try to reduce dissonance
Different personality theories
Myers-Briggs type indicator
A personality assessment that uses four dimensions of personality to identify different personality types
Extraversion versus Introversion
Sensing versus Intuition
Thinking versus Feeling
Judging versus Perceiving
Big Five Model
A personality trait model that examines five traits
A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is sociable,talkative,and assertive.
A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is good-natured,cooperative,and trusting.
A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is responsible,dependable,persistent,and achievement oriented.
A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is calm,enthusiastic,and secure or tense,nervous,depressed,and insecure.
Openness to experience
A personality dimension that describes the degree to which someone is imaginative,artistically sensitive,and intellectual.
The ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information.
Being aware of what you're feeling.
Managing your own emotions and impulses.
Persisting in the face of setbacks and failures.
Sensing how others are feeling
Adapting to and handling the emotions of others.
Five specific personality traits
An individual's degree of like or dislike for himself or herself
A personality trait that measures the ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors
A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic,maintain emotional distance,and believe that ends justify means
Locus of control
The degree to which people believe they control their own fate
Personalities and Jobs
There are different types of jobs
People in job environments compatible with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to resign voluntarily than people in incongruent jobs.
There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals
Holland's Personality-Job Fit
Understanding different approaches to work
Being a better manager
3 Factors influences perception
The object or target being perceived
The context of the situation
Managers judge employees
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency for people to only absorb parts of what they observe,which allows us to "speed read" others
An observer's perception of others influenced more by the observer's own characteristics than by those of the person observed
When we judge someone on the basis of our perception of a group to which that person belongs
When we form a general impression of a person on the basis of a single characteristic
Behavior is a function of its consequences
Social learning theory
Motor reproduction processes
Reinforcing a desired response by withdrawing something unpleasant
Eliminating undesirable behavior by applying penalties
Reinforcing a desired behavior by giving something pleasant.
Not reinforcing a behavior to eliminate it
Gen Y Workers
They seek out creative challenges and view colleagues as vast resources from whom to gain knowledge.
They want to make an important impact on Day 1.
High expectations of employers
They want fair and direct managers who are highly engaged in their professional development.
They want small goals with tight deadlines so they can build up ownership of tasks.
High expectations of self
They aim to work faster and better than other workers.