business studies topic 6 & 7 (maslow: employees want to have needs met…
business studies topic 6 & 7
organisational design: creating the formal hierarchy that establishes who is answerable to who throughout the organisation
includes: roles and titles of individuals, chain of command (lines of authority of the business) & units and divisions for which individual managers are responsible for
centralised: decisions made by management restricting autonomy for local managers but giving consistency to consumers
decentralised: decisions made locally, giving local managers more responsibility making staff more motivated
levels of hierarchy: the number of layers of auth.
chain of command: shows how authority is organised through various levels of hierarchy
span of control: number of subordinates reporting directly to a manager. wide = more reporting to manager
matrix structure: teams of employees with appropriate skills are assembled to carry out tasks
maslow: employees want to have needs met through employment. placed them into 5 categories.
mayo: conducted experimennts at hawthorne. relay assembly test where workers were seperated from their workmates. every 12 weeks a new working method was tried
taylor: scientific management. best way to get output from employees is a piece rate scheme rewarding those who produced the greatest output & close supervision
herzberg: money had a role to play in ensuring on effective workforce. 2 factors affecting how people felt about their work, some factors directly motivated employees (motivators) & the other factor is hygiene such as working conditions, it does not motivate them directly but would demotivate.
job design: non-financial method of motivation
job enrichment: giving greater responsibility and more challenging tasks
job enlargement: giving more varied tasks of a similar difficulty
consultation: discussing or processing information with peers